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Arthur,
Lord King of Logres

None of the line items that are included in the following outline are meant to be links.
The outline itself represents the material that is to be covered in the upcoming book known by the above title (available after November 2020).

Foreword by Linda A Malcor

  1. Introduction to Arthur, Lord King of Logres
  2. Meaning, Origin, Existence, and Comparison: Arthur’s Name, Multiple Arthurs, and Other Kings/Emperors/Heroes/Deities
    1. Introduction to the Meaning, Origin, Existence, and Comparison: Arthur’s Name, Multiple Arthurs, and Other Kings/Emperors/Heroes/Deities
    2. Meaning and Origin of the Name Arthur
      1. Introduction to the Meaning and Origin of the Name Arthur
      2. Stone
      3. High King
        1. (Ard Ri(gh))/(Major Warlord)/Emperor
        2. Last Roman emperor of Britain
        3. Flourished AD 470s/480s
        4. Died AD 510/515
      4. Lofty and Wise; or High Wisdom
      5. Good Hound/Dog
      6. Very Black
      7. Authoritative Body
      8. Green Man
        1. Arddhu/Arrdhu/Atho
        2. Brittonic Raven God
        3. 5th/6th Centuries AD
      9. Fosterer
      10. Ursa Maior/Major; or Great Bear
        1. Arktos/Arctos/Kallisto/Callisto/(Artemis Kalliste)/Ἑλίκη/Helike/Helice, daughter of Lycaon (son of Pelasgus and Meliboea)
        2. Greek Goddess
        3. 12th/11th/5th Centuries BC
      11. Ursa Minor; or Boötes
        1. Arkas/Arcas/Arcturus/Arktouros/Ar(i)ture/Arthurus/Arturis/Arctophylax
        2. Son of Zeos/Zeus/Iup(p)iter/Jupiter and Arktos/Arctos/Kallisto/Callisto/(Artemis Kalliste)/Ἑλίκη/Helike/Helice
        3. Greek King of Arcadia
        4. Flourished 8th century BC
        5. Became constellation by 460 BC
        6. Name related to arktos ourabear tail
      12. Bear
        1. -Man
        2. -Warden
        3. -Guard(ian)
        4. -Keeper
          1. (Mercurius) Ar(t)aius/Artiaus/Artaios
          2. Agricultural Sun/Bear God of the Allobroges of Gaul
          3. 3rd Century BC, possibly before
          4. Son of Iupiter (son of Saturn and Ops) and Maia (daughter of Atlas and Pleione the Oceanid)
        5. -Tail
        6. -King/Prince/Noble/Lord
        7. -like/Ursine
        8. -God
        9. -knowing
    3. Existence of Multiple Arthurs
      1. Introduction to the Existence of Multiple Arthurs
      2. “Proto-Arthur” — c 276,000 BC to AD 470
        1. “Arthur of the Bronze Age”
          1. Between 2520 BC and 1220 BC (2300 BC to 2010 BC to 1870 BC)
          2. Late 3rd/early 2nd Millennium BC — 2300 BC, as presented by John Darrah
        2. “Arthur the Great Bear”
          1. Arktos/Arctos/(Ursa Maior)/(the Great Bear)/Kallisto/Callisto/(Artemis Kalliste)/Ἑλίκη/Helike/Helice, daughter of Lycaon (son of Pelasgus)
          2. Greek Goddess
          3. 12th/11th/5th Centuries BC
        3. “King Arthur of Arcadia”
          1. Arkas/Arcas/Arcturus/Arktouros/Ar(i)ture/Arthurus/Arturis/Arctophylax/(Ursa Minor)/Boötes
          2. Son of Zeos/Zeus/Iup(p)iter/Jupiter and Arktos/Arctos/Ursa Maior/ (the Great Bear)/Kallisto/Callisto/(Artemis Kalliste)/Ἑλίκη/Helike/Helice
          3. Greek King of Arcadia
          4. Flourished 8th century BC
          5. Became constellation by 460 BC
          6. Name related to arktos ourabear tail
        4. “King Arthur of Lydia”
          1. Ardys/Ardus/Artus II
          2. Son of Gyges (son of Dascylus) and Tudo (daughter of King Amossus of Mysia)
          3. King of Lydia
          4. Born 696/636 BC
          5. Flourished 678/668/651/644 BC to 665/629/625/615 BC
          6. Died 624 BC
        5. “Arthur of the Iron Age”
          1. Between 1200 BC to 500 BC
          2. Or between 700 BC to 54 BC/AD 43
        6. “King Arthur the Druid”
          1. Arthfael/Arthvael/Archmail ap Seiss(y)l(l)(t)(t) ap Owain ap Caph ap Blaiddyd ap Meiriawn
          2. Druid King of Wales
          3. Born c 530 BC
        7. “Arthur as a God”
          1. Agricultural Sun/Bear God of the Allobroges of Gaul
          2. 3rd Century BC, possibly before
          3. Son of Iupiter (son of Saturn and Ops) and Maia (daughter of Atlas and Pleione the Oceanid)
          4. (Mercurius) Ar(t)aius/Artiaus/Artaios (Bear Keeper)/Artaois/Arteois/Artios/Ardeche/Art(h)e/Artois/Artus
            • (Mercurius) Ar(t)aius/Artiaus/Artaios (Bear Keeper)/Artaois/Arteois/Artios
              • (Mercurius) Ar(t)aius/Artiaus/Artaios (Bear Keeper)
              • Artaois/Arteois/Artios
            • Ardeche
            • Art(h)e
            • Artois/Artus
        8. “Arthur as a Goddess” — Artio(/Cer(r)idwen)/A(nd)(a)rta(s)/Art(i)os/Artionis/Artemis
          1. Artio(/Cer(r)idwen)
            • Artio of Muri
              • Bernese Bear Goddess
              • 3rd Century BC, possibly before
            • Cer(r)idwen
          2. A(nd)(a)rta(s)
          3. Art(i)os/Artionis
          4. Artemis, daughter of Zeos/Zeus and Leto
        9. “King Arthur of the Trinovantes*”
          1. (Aedd Mawr)/(Addedo the Great)/Addedomaros/Addedomarus/Αθθε-Domaros/Αθθε-Domarus/Aththe(-)domaros
          2. ((L(l)ud(d) (Llaw))/Nudd/((Nudd Llaw)/(Addedomaros) (Ereint/Erient))/Nodens/(Nuada Airgetlám))
          3. King of the *Trinobantes/Trinovantes of Camulo(-)dunum/Camulodunon (named for the War God Camulus)
          4. Born before c 40/35 BC
          5. Flourished c 20/15 BC to c 10/5 BC
          6. Died c 10/5 BC
        10. “Arthur the Roman Commander”
          1. Lucius Artorius Castus
          2. Commander VIth Roman Legion
          3. Born AD 140
          4. Flourished mid/late 2nd Century AD/mid 3rd Century AD — AD 166/167/184/185/215/232
          5. Died c AD 197
        11. “Prince Arthur in Ireland”
          1. Artú(i)r
          2. Son of Béine/Benne Brit
          3. Briton Prince in Ireland
          4. Flourished after AD 203/204
        12. “Arthur as a God”
          1. (Mars) Alator/Aladur/Aladwr
          2. Son of Iupiter/Jupiter and Iuno/Juno
          3. Romano-Briton God
          4. Flourished AD 226/227
        13. “Arthur the Roman”
          1. Artorius Comes/Dux Britanniarum
          2. As Count or Duke, of the gens Artoria
          3. 2nd through 5th Centuries AD
        14. “King Arthur of the Silures”
          1. Arthfael(l)/Arthvael ap/ab Einydd/Eunydd/Einudd ap Gwrddwf(y)n ap Cwrrig Goruc Mawr ap Meirchion Fawr Filwr ap Owain ap Cyllin
          2. Eastern Welsh King of the Silures, Ewyas/Ewias (Gwent — House of Fendigaid)
          3. Born c AD 230/285/288/290/310
        15. “Arthur of Demetia”
          1. Arthun/Anwn/Annun/Anyn/Antoni(ni)us Dynod/Dimet/Donatus Gregorius ap Flavius Clemens Magnus Maxim(us)/Maxianus/Macsen Augustus
          2. Southern Welsh, Demetia/Dyfed
          3. Born c AD (302/325)/350/355
          4. Flourished AD 320/382 to AD 350/382
          5. Died c AD 400
        16. “King Arthur of the Dobunni”
          1. Lower Midlands, Petty King of Dobunni* Civitas
          2. Born AD 364/365/381/382/453/460
          3. Least likely floruit between 7th century/300/129/128/97/96/65 BC and AD 43
          4. Most likely floruit AD 419/420/426/427/437/438/441/447/448/471/472/479/480/495/521/522/529/530
          5. Died c AD 434/435/451/452/530/537
          6. *or Bodunni
        17. “Arthur of the Northern Britons”
          1. Artorii as descendants of Sarmatian/Alan Conscripts
          2. Northern Briton
          3. Living in AD 428 in Bremetennacum Veteranorum near present-day Ribchester in Lancashire
        18. “King Arthur of the Alans”
          1. Eothar/Eochar/Euchar/Go(ch)ar/Gother/Gobar
          2. King of the Alans
          3. Born before AD 390 or AD 406
          4. Reigned before AD 406 to late AD 440s
          5. Flourished AD 446
          6. Died AD 446/450
        19. “King Arthur of Dumnonia”
          1. Arth
          2. (Constantine III/II)/(Flavius Claudius Constantinus)/(Constantius III)/Custennin as grandfather
          3. Breton Ancestry, Domnonia
          4. Flourished c AD 441/443
          5. West/Southwestern Briton King of Dumnonia
          6. Died c AD 449
        20. “Arthur of Brittany”
          1. Arzur
          2. Breton
          3. Died AD 500
      3. “Arthur of Badon” — AD 470 to to AD 530
        1. “Arthur the Crippled/Healed”
          1. Arthur/Artorius/Art(h)ri
          2. Born c AD 436/437
          3. Flourished AD 471/472
        2. “Arthur the High King”
          1. (Ard Ri(gh))/(High King)/(Major Warlord)/Emperor
          2. Last Roman emperor of Britain
          3. Flourished AD 470s/480s
          4. Died AD 510/515
        3. “Arthur as Uther”
          1. Uverian/Uthyr/(Uther (Pendragon))/(Uter Pandragon)/Utherpendragon/(Ythr ben dragwn), son of Kusten(n)in/Mustennin, son of Anlawdd
          2. Born c AD 450s (Domnonia or Dumnonia)
        4. “King Arthur of the Pennines”
          1. Arthwys ap/(m)ab Mor/Mar ap Ceneu ap Coel Hen ap Coel Godebog/Guotepa(u)c ap Tegfan/Teuh(v)ant/Techvant/Tec(h)mant/Teu(c)hnant
          2. North Briton King, the Pennines
          3. Born c AD 450/455/460
          4. Died c AD 520
        5. “Arthur the Shadow”
          1. Artad
          2. ExtraTerrestrial Shadow
          3. Airlia
          4. Died AD 528
        6. “Arthur the Romano-Briton”
          1. Son of Romulus August(ul)us (son of Flavius/Flavio Orestes and a daughter of Romulus) and Ygraine (daughter of Kustennin)
          2. Romano-Briton
          3. Born last quarter 5th Century/first quarter 6th Century AD
        7. “Arthur of Brycheiniog”
          1. Arthen
          2. Son of Brychan Pendragon (ap Anl(l)ach ap Coronac/Cormac ap Urb mac/mic/ap Æd(a)/Owein/Ewein ui Dessi) and Marchel(l) ferch Tewdrig
          3. Southern Welsh, Brycheiniog
          4. Born AD 460
          5. Died AD 530
        8. “Arthur as Custennin”
          1. Arthur/Artorius ap Anblaud/Amlawd(d)/Amlawt/Anlawd(d)/Amlodd/Amlwyd/Aflawdd/Amalg(h)aid/Amolgaid/Amlethus/Amlóði
          2. Born AD 460/468
          3. Flourished AD 495
        9. “Arthur, Duke of Battles”
          1. Artorius (Dux Bellorum)/Soldier/Warlord
          2. Briton, possibly Northern Welsh
          3. Late 5th/early 6th Centuries AD
            • Born c AD 471
            • Died c AD 524
        10. “Prince Arthur of the Silures”
          1. Southeastern Welsh Prince, Silures (Gl(y)wys(s)ing — House of Finddu)
          2. Flourished c AD 500
        11. “Arthur, Warlord of Gwynedd”
          1. Northern Welsh Warlord, Gwynedd
          2. Late 5th/early 6th Centuries AD
        12. “Arthur as a God”
          1. Arddhu/Arrdhu/Atho/(The Green Man)
          2. Brittonic Raven God
          3. 5th/6th Centuries AD
        13. “King Arthur of Rheged”
          1. Art(h)ur ic Uther/Uibar/Iubur/Iubar/I(o)bhar/Ambros(ius)/Emrys/Embreis ic Biduz/Custennin/Constantin(e)/(Constantinus I)
          2. North Briton King, Cumbrian, Rheged
          3. Born c AD 475
          4. Died c AD 515/542
        14. “King Arthur of Dumnonia”
          1. Arthyr/Arthur, son of Uverian/Uthyr/(Uther (Pendragon)) (and Eigyr/Igraine), son of Kusten(n)in/Mustennin, son of Amlawd(d) (G)wledig
          2. Born c AD 474/475
          3. King of Dumnonia, West Wales
          4. Flourished c AD 489/490 to c AD 525/526
          5. Died c AD 525/526
        15. “Arthur, Duke of Picts”
          1. Art(h)ur Dux Pictorum, interioris Britannia
          2. Pict
          3. Flourished AD 492/493
          4. Died before AD 552
        16. “Prince Arthur of Elmet”
          1. Arthwys/Arthius ap Masgwid Gloff (and Gwenllian verch Brychan) ap Gwrast/Gwrgwst Lledlwm/(The Raggéd) ap Ceneu ap Coel Hen
          2. North Briton Prince of Elmet
          3. Born c AD 479
        17. “King Arthur of Gl(y)wys(s)ing”
          1. Arthfael ap Einudd
          2. Southeastern Welsh King in Neath, Glamorgan, Gl(y)wys(s)ing (Cernyw — House of Finddu)
          3. Born AD 480
          4. Died AD 550
      4. “Arthur of Romance” — AD 530 to AD 1624
        1. “Arthur of Demed”
          1. Artúir/Art(h)u(i)r m(a)(i)c Re(i)th(e)oir/Ratheoir mac/m(a)ic Congair mic Go(i)rtiben/Gartbuir m(a)ic/map Agricola/Aergul/Alchoil/Alcon
          2. Southern Welsh, Demed/Dyfed/Demetia
          3. Late 4th/early 5th Centuries AD
            • Born c AD 515
            • Flourished c AD 537/538
            • Died c AD 560/561
        2. “Warrior-Saint Arthur of Gl(y)wys(s)ing”
          1. Arthfael/Ar(th)m(a)el/Arthmail/Ar(t)mag(i)lus/Arzor, son of Hywel/Hoel(us)/Hovelus Mawr/(The Great) ap (Budig/Budic(k) II)/(Emyr Llydaw)
          2. Mid/Southern/Southeastern Welsh Warrior-Saint, (Gl(y)wys(s)ing (Cernyw — House of Finddu)
          3. Born AD 482/538/540
          4. Flourished AD 540/55
          5. Died AD 552/570/600
        3. “Arthur of Cornwall”
          1. Artognou/Arthnou/Arthneu (descendant of Art)
          2. Son of Coll (descendant of Paternus Colus)
          3. West/Southwest Briton, Cornish
          4. 6th Century AD
        4. “Arthur of the Eastern Welsh”
          1. Son of Illtud/Illtyd/Eltut/Hildutus Farchog, son of Bicanus/Bec(c)anus/Bychan/Fechan
          2. Eastern Welsh
          3. Flourished 6th Century AD
        5. “Arthur as a Female Saint”
          1. Arddun/Arddyn Penuchel/Penasgell/Benasgel(l)/(Ben Uchel)/(High Head)/Wing-Headed/Arrogant
          2. Daughter of Pabo (Post Prydyn)/(Pillar of Britain), son of Athrwys/Arthwys/Einion ap Mor/Mar Maeswig ap Ceneu ap Coel Godebog
          3. Born c AD 510/512 (The Pennines)
          4. Flourished AD 557/558/580
        6. “Prince Arthur of Dalriada/Dál Riata”
          1. Artúr/Artuir/Arturius mac Áedá(i)n/Aiden/Aidan(us) mac Gabrain/Gabrán/Goran(us) mac Domanga(i)rt/Dongard(us) Reti mac Fergus Mór
          2. North Briton Prince, Dalriada/Dál Riata
          3. Born AD 559/560/570s
          4. Died AD 590/596/603
        7. “Arthur of Ceredigion” (Art the Lucky)
          1. Arthfoddw ap Boddw ap Serwyl ap Uffa ou Keredigyawn/Ceredig ap Cunedag/Cuned(d)a/Cunorix Wledig/(The Imperator) ap Edern/Ætern(us)
          2. Northern Welsh, Ceredigion
          3. Born AD 540/550/600
          4. Flourished AD 560 to AD 600
          5. Died AD 610/620
        8. “King Arthur of the Welsh”
          1. Arthwys ab Yvor ap Cunedda ap Cunedda Menrudd ap Coel ap Cunedag/Cuned(d)a/Cunorix Wledig/(The Imperator) ap Edern/Ætern(us)
          2. Welsh King, possibly Northern
          3. Born c AD 561
        9. “King Arthur of Dyfed”
          1. Artúir/Art(h)(ur)/Arth(en)/Arthw(y)r/Awthyr/Artorius Castus (m)ap Ped(y)r/Peder/Pet(e)r(us)/Petroc/Petuir/Pierre (m)ap Kyngar/Cyngar/Cincar
          2. Mid/Southern/Southwestern Welsh King, Dyfed
          3. Late 6th/early 7th Centuries AD
            • Born AD 540/550/555/560/563/570/573/575/580/585/600/620
            • Flourished AD 570/595 to AD 600/610/615
            • Died AD 610/615/620/625
        10. “Arthur of Ceredigion”
          1. Arthlwys ap Arthfoddw ap Boddw ap Serwyl ap Uffa ou Keredigyawn/Ceredig ap Cunedag/Cuned(d)a/Cunorix Wledig/(The Imperator)
          2. Northern Welsh, Ceredigion
          3. Born AD 570/630
          4. Flourished AD 590 to AD 630
          5. Died AD 640
        11. “King Arthur of Kintyre”
          1. Airthir/Artúir/(h-)Art(h)u(i)r filio/mac/(m)ap Bico(i)r/Bicair/Becuir/Bechaire/Beccurus (do Bretnaibh)/(the Briton)/Pritene Kintyre/(Cind Tyre)
          2. Early of Kintyre/(Cind Tyre — once part of Dalriada/Dál Riata), late of Gwynedd
          3. North Briton King
          4. Born AD 550/590
          5. Flourished AD 620/625
          6. Died AD 620/660
        12. “Arthur of the Irish”
          1. Art(h)u(i)r
          2. Grandfather of Feradach the cleric
          3. Irish
          4. Born c AD 600
        13. “King Arthur of Gwent and Gl(y)wys(s)ing; and in the Mabinogi”
          1. Athrwys/Arthwys ap Meurig ap Tewdrig ap Llywarch ap Nynniaw ap Erb ap Erbig ap Meurig ap Caradoc/Caradog/Carados Vreichvras/Friechfras
          2. Southern Welsh King, Ergyng (Gwent and Gl(y)wys(s)ing))
          3. Born AD 610/618/655
          4. Reigned AD 645/655
          5. Died AD 655/680
        14. “Arthur as Uther as a God”
          1. Wthyr/U(i)thyr/Uthir/Uthar/Uth(e)r/Ythr Pendraeg/Pen-Draig/Pendragon/Ben(dragon)/(ben dragwn)
          2. Son of Constantine II of Strathclyde
          3. Welsh God
          4. 6th to 10th Centuries AD
        15. “Arthur near York”
          1. Artor
          2. Near York
          3. 11th Century AD
    4. Comparison of Other Kings/Emperors/Heroes/Deities to Arthur
      1. Introduction to Comparison of Other Kings/Emperors/Heroes/Deities to Arthur
      2. Prehistoric/Mythic era Heroes/Deities — c 276,000 BC to AD 43
        1. Enlil/Ellil
          1. Son of Anu(m) and Ki/Urash/Nin-Hursag/Nin-Mah (both offspring of Anshar and Kishar)
          2. (Anshar, son of Lahmu and Lahamu, both of which offspring of Apsu and Tiamat; Kishar, daughter of Apsu and Tiamat)
          3. Sumerian/Akkadian/Babylonian, Storm/Father God
          4. Originated before 275,848 BC
        2. Adad/Had(d)a(d)/Haddu/Iškur
          1. Son of Enlil/Ellil
          2. Sumerian/Akkadian/Babylonian, Storm/Fertility God
          3. 170,223/2500 BC
        3. Dumu-Zi/Tammuz
          1. Son of Adad/Iškur and Nin-Sûna/Shala/Duttur/Gubarra
          2. Sumerian/Mesopotamian (Fertility God)/(Shepard King) — Beloved of Enlil
          3. Dumu-Zi of Badtibira — reigned 139,048 BC to 103,048 BC
          4. Dumu-Zi of Kua in Eanna – reigned 8,194 BC to 8,094 BC
        4. A(u)s(a)r/Ser/Osiris
          1. Son of Geb/Keb and Nut (both offspring of Shu and Tefnut; in turn, offspring of Ra/Re/Atum/(A)tem and Iusaaset/Iusaas/Ausaas/Saosis)
          2. (Ra, son of N(e)(i)t(h)); Atum, son of (Ne)nu/Nun(u)(t)/N(a)unet/Nuit/Nent)
          3. Egyptian God
          4. Reigned 12,539/12,089 BC
          5. Worshipped 30th/26th/24th Centuries BC
        5. Heru/Hor(us)
          1. Son of A(u)s(a)r/Ser/Osiris and Ast/Isis
          2. (Both offspring of Geb/Keb and Nut)
          3. Egyptian God
          4. Reigned 11,739/11,439 BC
          5. Worshipped 3000 BC
        6. Batraz
          1. Son of Xæmyc (son of Ahsnart/Horčesha) and a fairy (the daughter of Btsen)
          2. Hero Nart in Sagas/Legends, Indo-Iranian in origin
          3. Before 7th Century BC, as early as 7200/6000 BC
        7. Krishna
          1. Son of Vasudeva and Devaki (daughter of Devaka)
          2. Hindu God as the eighth Avatar of Vishnu
          3. Born 21 Jul 3227 BC (Mathura, Surasena — present-day Uttar Pradesh, India)
          4. Died 18 Feb 3102 BC
        8. Viracocha/Wiracocha/Wiraqucha/(fat/foam of the sea)/(Wila Quta)/(blood lake)/(Apu Qun Tiqsi Wiraqutra)/Con-Tici/Kon-Tiki
          1. Pre-Inca Creator God
          2. c 3000 BC
        9. Iškur/Pid(a)r(ay)/Rapiu/Rapha
          1. Son of Enlil/Yahweh (son of Anu)
          2. Babylonian/Semitic/Ugaritic/Assyrian/Aramean God
          3. c 2500 BC
        10. (Eochu/Eocho/E(o)chaid(h)) Ollathair the Dagda
          1. Son of Elatha/Elada/Ealadha (son of Dalbaech)
          2. Irish High-King
          3. 19th/18th Centuries BC
          4. Wounded in the 1869 BC — Battle of Moytura
          5. Began reign in 1828 BC
          6. Died 1749 BC
        11. Αστεριος/Asterios/Asterius/(Starry)/Zeos/Zeus/Iup(p)iter/(Iupiter Latinus)/Jupiter
          1. Son of Αναξ/Anax/(Ruler)/Kronos/Cronus/Saturn and Rhea/Ops
          2. (Both offspring of Ouranos/Uranus/Caelus and Gaia/Gaea/Terra)
          3. Cretan/Hellenic/Roman God
          4. Flourished c 1447 BC
        12. Akagamunas/Agamemnon
          1. Son of Atreus (son of Pelops and Hippodam(e)ia) and Aerope (daughter of Catreus)
          2. Achaean/Mycenaean/Greek King
          3. Flourished in 14th Century BC at Ahhiyawa/Argos
        13. Il/El(kunirsa)/Yahweh/Kumarbi
          1. Son of Anu, Son of Anshar and Kishar
          2. (Anshar, son of Lahmu and Lahamu, both offspring of Apsu and Tiamat; Kishar, daughter of Apsu and Tiamat)
          3. Hittite/Hurrian/Hebrew/Aryan God
          4. Flourished 15th/14th/13th Centuries BC
        14. Ba’al/Ba’al-Zephon/Ba’al-Sidon/Saphon
          1. Son of Dagan (son of El and At(h)irat-/Asherah-of-the-Sea)
          2. Canaanite Fertility God
          3. Flourished 1450 BC to 1180 BC
        15. Ικαριος/Ikarios/Icar(i)us of Athens/Sparta
          1. Son of Oibalos/Oebalus (son of Kynortas/Cynortas) and Bat(e)ia/Gorgophone (daughter of Eurotas)
          2. (Kynortas/Cynortas, son of Amyclas and Diomede; Eurotas, son of Myles)
          3. Greek
          4. Athenian flourished 1437 BC to 1396 BC
          5. Spartan flourished 1260/1194 BC to 1184/1180 BC
        16. Moshe/Moses
          1. Son of Amran (son of Kohath/Kehath) and Jochebed (daughter of Levi/Jezah)
          2. Egyptian/Canaanite, Mythic/Legendary Prophet
          3. Born c 1400 BC/late 14th Century BC
          4. Died c 1201 BC
        17. Ἡρακλής/Hēraklēs/Heracles/Hercules/Ἀλκαϊος/Alkaios/Alcaeus/Ἀλκείδης/Alkeidēs/Alcides
          1. Son of Zeus and Alcmene
          2. Græco-Roman Hero/Demigod
          3. Died c 1226 BC
        18. Atunis/Attis
          1. Son of Agdistis (son/daughter of Zeos/Zeus and Gaia) and Nana (daughter of Sangarius)
          2. (Gaia/Gaea/Terra, daughter of Chaos/Aether/Aither and Hemera; Sangarius, son of Oceanus and Tethys)
          3. Etruscan/Greek/Phrygian/Roman Fertility God
          4. Flourished c 1250/1200 BC
        19. Apollo(s)/Apulu
          1. Son of Zeos/Zeus (son of Anax/Kronos/Saturn and Rhea/Ops) and Leto/Latona (daughter of Coeus and Phoebe)
          2. Greek/Roman, Mythic Solar, DemiGod/Deity
          3. Flourished 2000 BC to 3rd century BC
        20. Ὄγμιος/Ogmios/Og(i)mius/Og(h)ma
          1. Son of Elatha and Ethliu/Étain
          2. Gaulish/Irish God
          3. Flourished c 1089 BC
        21. Dionysus
          1. Son of Zeos/Zeus and Semele (daughter of Cadmus) or Persephone (daughter of Zeos/Zeus and Demeter)
          2. Greek God
          3. Flourished/worshipped 1500/1100/500 BC
        22. David/Dawud/Hamelech
          1. Ben Jesse ben Obed ben Boaz/Booz ben Salma(n)/Salmon
          2. Jewish/Israelite, Mythic/Legendary, Prophet and King of Judah and Israel
          3. Born c 1085/1040/1035/1030 BC
          4. Died c 970/961 BC
        23. Solomon/Shlomoh/Jedidiah/Yədidya
          1. Ben David/Dawud/Hamelech ben Jesse ben Obed ben Boaz/Booz ben Salma(n)/Salmon
          2. Jewish/Israelite, Mythic/Legendary, King of Israel
          3. Born c 990 BC
          4. Reigned c 970 BC to 931 BC
          5. Died c 931 BC
        24. Adon(is)/Adonai
          1. Son of Cinyras/Theias/Phoenix and Myrrha/Smyrna/Metharme/Alphesiboea
          2. Canaanite/Phoenician/Greek/Roman, Fertility God
          3. Flourished 14th Century BC to 6th Century BC
        25. Alexander the Great
          1. Son of Philip II (son of Amyntas III and Eurydice I) and Olympias (daughter of Neoptolemus I of Epirus)
          2. Macedonian King
          3. Born 20/21 July 356 BC
          4. Reigned 336 BC to 323 BC
          5. Died 10/11 Jun 323 BC
        26. Aśoka/Ashoka the Great
          1. Son of Bindusara (son of Chandragupta Maurya and Durdhara) and Subhadrangi/Dharma/Janapadakalyani (daughter of a Brahmin from Champa)
          2. 3rd Mauryan, Emperor/King
          3. Pradesh, India
          4. Born 304 BC
          5. Reigned 268 BC to 232 BC
          6. Died 232 BC
        27. Hippolytus/Virbius/(Rex Nemorensis)
          1. Son of Theseus (son of Poseidon and Aethra) and Atiope/Hippolyte/Hippolyta (daughter of Ares)
          2. Roman Hero/God – King of the Forest
          3. c 5th Century BC/AD 8
        28. (Eochu/Eocho/E(o)chaid(h)) Airem
          1. Son of Finn, son of Rogen Ruad, son of Essamain Emna, son of Blathnachta, son of Labraid Lorc, son of Enna Aignech
          2. Irish agricultural plough(ing)-God
          3. 2nd/1st Century BC — 131 BC to 116 BC; or 82 BC to 70 BC; or 48 BC to 44 BC, story is much older
        29. Mit(h)ra(s)/(Shamash/Apollo)
          1. Son of Enlil/Zeos/Zeus/Iupiter/Jupiter
          2. Persian/Roman Solar God
          3. Flourished 600 BC to 4th century AD
        30. Bel(in)(us)/(Beli Mawr)/Dolobellus
          1. Son of Manogan/Monnogan (and Anna) ap Eneid Capuir/Capoir ne Pabo enn Arall ap Cerwyd/Pyr ap Sawl Benisel ap Rhydderch
          2. (ap Rhodawr ap Eidiol ap Arthfael/Arthvael/Archmail ap Seis(s)(y)l(l)(t)(t) ap Owain)
          3. Born c 140/132/130/125/110/101/99/65 BC
          4. Died c 72 BC
          5. Southeastern Welsh, Silures (Gl(y)wys(s)ing — House of Finddu)
          6. Cambrian Mythic/Legendary Solar God, and Druid King of Britain
        31. Cassibilian/Cassivellaunus/Cassivellaunos/Cas(s)wal(l)a(w)n/Caswal(l)on
          1. Son of Beli Mawr and Dôn verch/ferch Mathonwy
          2. Born 108 BC
          3. Flourished 54 BC
          4. Died 48 BC
        32. Fergus mac Roich/Roy/Róig/Rossa
          1. Irish God
          2. 2nd Century/1st Century BC — 159 BC to 143 BC, or 110 BC to 94 BC, or 51 BC to 30 BC, or 49 BC
          3. 1st Century BC/1st Century AD — 27 BC to AD 14
        33. Guidgen/Gwydion/Fidgen fab/(son of) Dôn/Anna verch/ferch Mathonwy
          1. Welsh God
          2. Born c 95/37 BC
        34. (Cú Chulainn)/(Cú Chulaind)/Cúchulain(n)/Cuhullin
          1. Son of Lugh (son of Cian and Ethniu/Eithne) and Deichtine (wife of Sualtam mac Róich)
          2. (Cian, son of Dian Cécht and Danu; Ethniu, daughter of Balor)
          3. Irish Hero
          4. Died AD 2/12
        35. Manawydan/Manannán/Mandubracios/Mandubracius/Mandubratius/Mannuētiagnos/(Son of Mannuētios)
          1. Mac/(m)ap/fab/(son of) Imanuentius/Inianuvetitius/Inianuvetutus/Imannuetitius/Mannuētios/Allód/Le(a)r/Lir/Llŷr and Penardim/Penard(d)un
          2. Sea God in Manx, Irish, and Welsh
          3. Originally a king of the Trinovantes
          4. Flourished c 55 BC/AD 12
        36. Cadwallon/Katuwellaunos/Katu-welnā-mnos/(in battle (katu-), leads (welnā-), the one who (-mnos))
          1. one of the Catuvellauni who lived in what is now Hertfordshire
          2. Led the resistance against the Romans in AD 43
          3. possibly against Caesar in 55 BC and 54 BC as well
        37. Gwyn(n)
          1. (Son of)/ap (L(l)ud(d) (Llaw))/Nudd/((Nudd Llaw)/(Addedomaros) (Ereint/Erient))/Nodens/(Nuada Airgetlám)
          2. ((Aedd Mawr)/(Addedo the Great)/Addedomarus/Addedomaros/Αθθε-Domaros/Αθθε-Domarus/Aththe(-)domaros)
          3. Welsh Wild Huntsman God
          4. Born c 75/70/49/45/40/35/23 BC/AD 52/53
        38. Brân/Bron/Bendigeidfran/(Brân Fendigaidd)/(Blessed Crow)
          1. (Son of)/mac/(m)ap/fab Imanuentius/Inianuvetitius/Inianuvetutus/Imannuetitius/Mannuētios/Allód/Le(a)r/Lir/Llŷr and Penardim/Penard(d)un
          2. (Imanuentius/Inianuvetitius/Inianuvetutus/Imannuetitius/Mannuētios/Allód/Le(a)r/Lir/Llŷr, son of Cassibilian/Cassivellaunus/Cassivellaunos)
          3. (Penardim/Penard(d)un verch (L(l)ud(d) (Llaw))/Nudd/((Nudd Llaw)/(Addedomaros) (Ereint/Erient))/Nodens/(Nuada Airgetlám) ap Beli Mawr)
          4. Southeastern Welsh, Silures (Gl(y)wys(s)ing – House of Finddu)
          5. Born c 20 BC/AD 10/12
          6. Died c AD 36/40/65
        39. Yeshu(a)
          1. Ben Pant(h)era/Pandera/Pandira and Miryam/Maryam
          2. Judeo-Roman Prophet
          3. Flourished 1st century AD
          4. Died c AD 29/40
        40. Caratacus/Caratacas/Cama(a)lis
          1. Ap Cynfelyn/Cymbeline/Cunobelin(us) ap Tasciovanus ap (L(l)ud(d) (Llaw))/Nudd/((Nudd Llaw)/(Addedomaros) (Ereint/Erient))/Nodens
          2. Born c AD 10
          3. Reigned AD 43 to AD 50
          4. Died after AD 50 (AD 54)
      3. Roman Britain era Heroes/Deities — AD 43 to AD 410
        1. Beli(m)/Heli
          1. Son of Brân/Bron/Bendigeidfran/(Brân Fendigaidd)/(Blessed Crow) and Anna/Enygeus
          2. Flourished c AD 58/59
        2. Agrestes/Argestes/A(r)vi(r)agus of Gwenivyth/Gweirydd
          1. Ap Cynfelyn/Cymbeline/Cunobelin(us) ap Tasciovanus ap (L(l)ud(d) (Llaw))/Nudd/((Nudd Llaw)/(Addedomaros) (Ereint/Erient))/Nodens
          2. Southeastern Welsh King, Silures (Gl(y)wys(s)ing — House of Finddu)
          3. Born c AD 10/41/54/105
          4. Died c AD 54/60/74/81/96
        3. (Coel(us) I)/Coilus
          1. Ap Marius/Meric/Cyllin (ap Agrestes/Argestes/A(r)vi(r)agus of Gwenivyth/Gweirydd, and Genuissa) and Venus/Victoria Julia
          2. (Venus/Victoria Julia verch Prasutagus/Prasutugu and Boadicea)
          3. (Boudica/Boadicea/Bodicea/Victoria, daughter of Antideos Mandubratius)
          4. (Antideos Mandubratius ap (L(l)ud(d) (Llaw))/Nudd/((Nudd Llaw)/(Addedomaros) (Ereint/Erient))/Nodens/(Nuada Airgetlám) ap Beli Mawr)
          5. Roman
          6. Born c AD 60/80/104/120/125
          7. Died c AD 170
        4. (Fionn Mac Cumhail(l))/(Find Mac Coul)/(Finn Mac Cool)
          1. Son of Cumhail(l)/Coul/Cool and Muirne (daughter of Tadg mac Nuadat/(Nuadu Necht)/(Nuada Airgetlám))
          2. Irish Hero King
          3. Born AD 106/140
          4. Flourished AD 123/157
          5. Died AD 284
        5. (Mars) Belatucader, son of Iupiter and Iuno
          1. Romano-British God of War
          2. Worshipped in his own right as a Warrior God
          3. His name is said to be from Irish and Welsh meaning ‘the fair shining one’
          4. Appears on many altar stones along Hadrian’s Wall and in northern Britain
            • Particularly within the lands of the Carveti(i)
            • Where he may have been worshipped as a Tribal Patron God
          5. To the Trinovantes/Trinobantes, and the Catuvellauni, he was known as (Mars) Camulus — lending his name to Camulo(-)dunum/Camulodunon
          6. In the Brigantes tribe, he was Belatucadrus
          7. To the Corielta(u)vi/Coritani, he was known as (Mars) Braciaca
        6. (Coel II)/Coilus
          1. Son of Cadwan/Cadvan de Bretagne (and Gladys verch Lleiffer Mawr), son of Fiachu Straiptine Srabhteine and Aoife Gall Gaedal
          2. King
          3. Born AD 202/218/225/232/240
          4. Died AD 262/275/285
        7. Þórr/Donar/Thun(o)r/Tror/T(h)or Odinsson
          1. Son of Wo(u)tan/(V)odin(n)/(W)oden/(V)othin(n) and Jörð/Jord/Jorth/Jarð/Fjörgyn/Hlóðyn
          2. (Wo(u)tan/(V)odin(n)/(W)oden/(V)othin(n), son of Bor/Frithuwald/Fiarlef/Frialafr/Firthleif/Friallaf/Fríallaf and Beltsa)
          3. Norse/Germanic God
          4. Born c AD 214/215/243
        8. Bald(e)r/Baldur/B(a)eld(a)eg/Beldex/Beig Odinsson av Āsgard de Saxony
          1. Son of Wo(u)tan/(V)odin(n)/(W)oden/(V)othin(n) and Frígídá/Frigida/Frigg(a)/Friege/Frija/Friia/Frea
          2. (Wo(u)tan/(V)odin(n)/(W)oden/(V)othin(n), son of Bor/Frithuwald/Fiarlef/Frialafr/Firthleif/Friallaf/Fríallaf and Beltsa)
          3. (Frígídá/Frigida/Frigg(a)/Friege/Frija/Friia/Frea, daughter of Fjorgvin/Cadwalladr/Jord, son of Lleiffer/Llewfer/Lleuver/Lucius Mawr ap Coellyn)
          4. Norse/Germanic God
          5. King of West Saxons
          6. Born c AD 242/243/256/258
          7. Died c AD 272/292/325/330/333
        9. (Constantine the Great)/(Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantin(i)us)
          1. Son of Constantius I Chlorus (son of Eutropius) and Helena
          2. Roman Emperor
          3. Born 27 Feb AD 265/272 or after 280
          4. Reigned 25 Jul AD 306 to 22 May AD 337
          5. Died 22 May AD 337
        10. Coel Godebog/Guotepa(u)c
          1. Ap Tegfan/Teuhvant/Techvant/Techmant/Teuchnant ap Urban/Erb ap Grat/Gradd ap Remetel/Jumutel ap Ritgurinum/Retigirn/Rutegyrn
          2. Romano-Briton
          3. Born AD 336/338/340/343/344
          4. Flourished after AD 358
          5. Died after AD 370/374
        11. Flavius Clemens Magnus Maxim(us)/Maxianus/Macsen Augustus (II) Wledig/Gulecic/Guletic
          1. Son of Maximianus Constans, son of Flavia Maxima Fausta (illegitimate)
          2. Born c AD 290/322(/335/340)
          3. Flourished late 4th Century AD — AD 383 to 28 Aug AD 388/390
          4. Died 28 Aug AD 388/390(/406)
          5. North Briton, Manau Gododdin, Votadini
          6. Southern Welsh (Gwent and Gl(y)wys(s)ing — House of Dynod)
        12. Coel Hen
          1. Ap Coel Godebog/Guotepa(u)c ap Tegfan/Teuhvant/Techvant/Techmant/Teuchnant ap Urban/Erb ap Grat/Gradd ap Remetel/Jumutel
          2. North Briton High-King, Dux Brittaniarum
          3. Romano-Briton
          4. Born AD 350/355/360/369/370/380
          5. Reigned c AD 400 or AD 350 to AD 420
          6. Died 19 Nov AD 420/425
      4. Early Sub-Roman Britain era Heroes/Deities — AD 410 to AD 470
        1. Cunedag/Cuned(d)a/Cunorix Wledig/(The Imperator)
          1. Ap Edern/Ætern(us) ap Padarn/Padernus/Patern(us) Beisrud/Pesrut/(of the Red Robe)
          2. (North Briton King, Manau Gododdin)/(Northern Welsh King, Gwynedd)
          3. Born c AD 375/380/390/395
          4. Died AD 430/460
        2. (Teyrn(on)/Teirnyon Twr(y)(f)/Túrúf/Tory L(l)iant/Uliant/Fliant/Bliant/Blyaunt)/(Great Lord of the Tumultuous Sea)/(Monarch of the Host of the Sea)
          1. Eastern/Southern Welsh
          2. Lord of Gwent IsCoed, or Prince of Dyfed
          3. Flourished AD 421/430
        3. Vortiger(n)/Vertigen/Gwrtheyrn/Gorthe(g)yrnn/Guorthigirn/Wyrtgeorne/Vitalinus Vorteneu/Gwertheneu/Gwrthenav/(The Thin)
          1. Son of Gwidawl/Gwidol/Vitalis, son of Gwdoloeu/Gwydolin Vitalinus, son of Gloyw Gwallt Hir ap Rhuddfedd Frych ap Cadeyrn ap Gwrtheyrn
          2. Eastern Welsh King, Powys
          3. Born AD 370/390/400
          4. Reigned c AD 411 to c AD 430, or c AD 425 to AD 455/466, or c AD 449
          5. Died AD 447/455/459/464
        4. Attila (the Hun)
          1. Son of Mundzuk/Mundzucus/Mundiucus/Moundiou
          2. Born c AD 406
          3. Died Mar AD 453
        5. Aurelius Ambrosius the Elder (Aurelian the Divine)
          1. Son of Flavius Constantius III Augustus (and an earlier wife), son of Malvius, son of Eucherius and Flavia
          2. (Eucherius, son of Flavius Honorius and Placidia Flavia)
          3. Duce of Caer Gloui
          4. Midlands, Cornovii
          5. Born c AD 396
          6. Flourished AD 437
          7. Reigned AD 412/432/435/440 to AD 425/436/442
          8. Died 473
        6. Ceretic/Ceredig
          1. Ap Cunedag/Cuned(d)a/Cunorix Wledig/(The Imperator) ap Edern/Ætern(us) ap Padarn/Padernus/Patern(us) Beisrud/Pesrut/(of the Red Robe)
          2. Northern Welsh King, Ceredigion
          3. Born c AD 420/421/427
          4. Died AD 453
        7. Caradog/Ceredig/Ceretic/Coronticus (G)wledig/Guletic
          1. Ap Cynlo(u)p/Cynloyp/Cynllwyb ap Cinhil Quintillus ap Cluim Clemens ap Cursalem ap Fer ap Confer ap Cunedd ap (Coel II)/Coilus
          2. North Briton King, Al(lt )Clud/Clut, Damnonii
          3. Born c AD 388/390/410/418
          4. Flourished AD 450
          5. Died after AD 459/470
        8. Riatham/Riot(h)amus/Riotimus/Riutimus/Rigotamos/Rigotamus/Rigadaf
          1. Ap Deroch I ap Guitol/Gwithol/Witholus ap Gradlon/Urbienus Mawr/(The Great) ap Cynan/Conan/Catou(i)us Meriadog
          2. Gaulic/Armorican Prince of the Domnonée
          3. “Arthur” as title
          4. Born AD 430/435
          5. Reigned AD 454 to AD 470
          6. Flourished AD 458 to AD 460
          7. Died AD 470
        9. Brychan
          1. Ap Anl(l)ach (and Marchel(l) ferch Tewdrig) ap Coronac/Cormac ap Urb mac/mic/ap Æd(a)/Owein/Ewein ui Dessi Briscus/Brosc/Vraisg/Vreiss
          2. Southern Welsh King/Pendragon, Brycheiniog
          3. Born AD 419/430
          4. Flourished AD 450 to AD 480
          5. Died AD 500
        10. Pascent/Pasgen
          1. Son of Vortiger(n)/Vertigen/Gwrtheyrn/Gorthe(g)yrnn/Guorthigirn/Wyrtgeorne/Vitalinus Vorteneu/Gwertheneu/Gwrthenav/(The Thin)
          2. Born AD 430
          3. Flourished AD 450 to AD 480
          4. Died AD 500
      5. Middle Sub-Roman Britain Era Heroes/Deities — AD 470 to AD 530
        1. Ambrosius/Emrys/Embreis Aurelianus Wledic/(G)wledig/Guletic the Younger
          1. Son of Biduz/Custennin/Constantin(e)/(Constantinus I) ap Selyf(an)/Salomon/Solomon I, son of Urbienus/Gradlon Mawr/(The Great)
          2. High-King/Pendragon of Briton, Breton, Cornouaille/Kerne(v)
          3. “Arthur” as title
          4. Born AD 403/425/430/469/470
          5. Flourished AD 460/475/480
          6. Reigned AD 480 to AD 488
          7. Died AD 473/495/500
        2. Agricola/Aergul/Aergol/Aircol/Aricol/Alchoil/Alcon Lawhir/Llawir/Iawhir/(Long-Hand)
          1. Mic/ap Tresund/Trestin/Triusin mac/mic/ap Æd(a)/Owein/Ewein ui Dessi Briscus/Brosc/Vraisg/Vreiss/Vreise
          2. Mid/Southwestern Welsh King, Dyfed
          3. Born c AD 435/437/440/444/450/460
          4. Flourished AD 460/467/471 to AD 467/473/490
          5. Died c AD 495/500/502/510
        3. Geraint/Gereint Llyngesog/(The Fleet Owner)
          1. Ap Erbin ap (Constantine (Gorneu/Corneu))/(Custen(n)in Cerniw/Cernyw)/Constantinus ap Cynfa(w)r/Kynuawr/Kynor/Conomar and Gratianna
          2. Born AD 448
          3. Flourished c AD 480
          4. Died c AD 514
          5. Domnonian/Cornouaillean ancestry
          6. West/Southwestern Briton King, Dumnonia/Cerniw
        4. Romulus August(ul)us
          1. Son of Flavius/Flavio Orestes (and a daughter of Romulus), son of Tatulus/Tatulo
          2. Last Western Roman Emperor
          3. Born c AD 460/461
          4. Reigned 31 Oct AD 475 to (31 Aug)/(4 Sep) AD 476
          5. Died after AD 510 (AD 527)
        5. Caradoc/Caradog/Carados Vreichvras/Friechfras/Briefbras/(Strong Arm)
          1. Ap Ynyr ap Dyfnwal ap Ednyfed ap Arthun/Anwn/Annun/Anyn/Antoni(ni)us Dynod/Dimet/Donatus Gregorius
          2. (ap Flavius Clemens Magnus Maxim(us)/Maxianus/Macsen Augustus (II) Wledig/Gulecic/Guletic, son of Maximianus Constans)
          3. Southern Welsh King (Gwent and Gl(y)wys(s)ing — House of Dynod)
          4. Late 5th/early 6th Century AD
            • Born AD 445/470
            • Died AD 515
        6. Dyfnwal Hen
          1. Ap Cinuit ap Caradog/Ceredig/Ceretic/Coro(n)ticus (G)wledig/Guletic ap Cynlo(u)p/Cynloyp/Cynllwyb ap Cinhil Quintillus Guletic
          2. North Briton King/Pendragon, Al(lt )Clud
          3. Born AD 448/450/455
          4. Died AD 525/530
        7. Catel/Cadell Ddyrnllwg/(Gleaming Hilt)
          1. Ap Categirn/Catigern/(Cadeyrn Fendigaid)/(Kentigern the Blessed) ap Vortiger(n)/Vertigen/Gwrtheyrn/Gorthe(g)yrnn/Guorthigirn/Wyrtgeorne
          2. Mid/Eastern Welsh King, Powys
          3. Born AD 430/452/453/460
          4. Flourished AD 480 to AD 510
          5. Died AD 530
        8. Riocatus
          1. Son of Pascent/Pasgen, son of Vortiger(n)/Vertigen/Gwrtheyrn/Gorthe(g)yrnn/Guorthigirn/Wyrtgeorne/Vitalinus Vorteneu/Gwertheneu/(The Thin)
          2. Born AD 460
          3. Flourished AD 475/480 to AD 510
          4. Died AD 530
        9. Owain D(d)an(t)(g)wyn/(White-Tooth)
          1. Ap Einion Yrth/(The Impetuous) ap Cunedag/Cuned(d)a/Cunorix Wledig/(The Imperator) ap Edern/Ætern(us) ap Padarn/Padernus/Patern(us)
          2. “Arthur” as title: The Bear
          3. Breton ancestry
          4. Eastern Welsh King, Viroconium Cornoviorum, Powys
          5. Northern Welsh King, Rhôs, Gwynedd
          6. Born AD 450/460
          7. Flourished/Reigned AD 470/490/496 to AD 510/520
          8. Died AD 517/520/530 (Rhôs, Northern Wales)
        10. Cadwaladr/Catgualart
          1. Ap Me(i)r(ch)ion ap Typipion ap Cunedag/Cuned(d)a/Cunorix Wledig/(The Imperator) ap Edern/Ætern(us) ap Padarn/Padernus/Patern(us)
          2. Northern Welsh King, Meirionydd
          3. Born AD 450/460
        11. Iaun/Iuan/John Reith/Riatham/Regula/(The Righteous)
          1. Ap Budic/Budig I ap Aldrien/Aldroenus ap Selyf(an)/Salomon/Solomon I ap Urbienus/Gradlon Mawr/(The Great) ap Cynan/Conan/Catou(i)us
          2. Breton
          3. Born c AD 454/470
          4. Flourished c AD 500
        12. Ceidio/Ceidiaw/Keidyav
          1. Ap/(m)ab Athrwys/Arthwys/Einion ap/(m)ab Mor/Mar ap Ceneu ap Coel Hen ap Coel Godebog/Guotepa(u)c ap Tegfan/Teuh(v)ant/Techvant
          2. Born AD 470/472/488
          3. Flourished AD 488/490
        13. Cunedda Menrudd
          1. Ap Coel ap Cunedag/Cuned(d)a/Cunorix Wledig/(The Imperator) ap Edern/Ætern(us) ap Padarn/Padernus/Patern(us) Beisrud/Pesrut
          2. Northern Welsh King
          3. Born c AD 474
        14. Vortipor(us)/Vortepor(ix)/Guortepir/Gw(o)rthyfyr/Gw(e)rthefyr/Gordeber/Gartbuir
          1. Ap Erbin Llawir (m)ap Triphun/Tryphun/Tyffin Farfog (The Bearded) map Clotri(us) (m)ap Gloitguin/Gloitquin/Kyndeyrn ap Ewein/Owain
          2. Mid/Southern/Southwestern Welsh King/Protector, Dyfed
          3. Born AD 470/475/490/498/500
          4. Flourished c 490/495 to 520/540
          5. Died AD 540/580
        15. Cuneglas(s)us/Cyngen/Cynlas Goch/(The Red)
          1. Ap Owain D(d)an(t)(g)wyn/(White-Tooth) ap Einion Yrth/(The Impetuous) ap Cuned(d)a/Cunorix Wledig/(The Imperator) ap Edern/Ætern(us)
          2. Northern Welsh King, Rhôs, Gwynedd
          3. Late 5th/early 6th century AD
            • Born AD 480/490
            • Reigned AD 500/520 to AD 537/540
            • Died AD 550/560
        16. Cerdic/Ceretic/Keretic/Ceredig/Careticus/Caraticos
          1. Son of Elafius/Elasius/Elesa/Esla/Aloc/Alusa/Hyddwn of Wessex
          2. Mercenary/Non-Briton, King
          3. Born c AD 467/480
          4. Reigned AD 549 to AD 554
          5. Died AD 534/550
      6. Late Sub-Roman Britain era Heroes/Deities — AD 530 to AD 590
        1. Cunedda
          1. Ap Cunedda Menrudd ap Coel ap Cunedag/Cuned(d)a/Cunorix Wledig/(The Imperator) ap Edern/Ætern(us) ap Padarn/Padernus/Patern(us)
          2. Northern Welsh King
          3. Born c AD 500
        2. C(h)anao I
          1. Son of Gwereg/Guérech/Waroch I
          2. Breton/Armorican, King of Vannetais
          3. Reigned AD 550 to AD 560
        3. Riatham
          1. Ap Deroch II ap Riwal Mawr Merchou ap Deroch I ap Guitol/Gwithol/Witholus ap Urbienus/Gradlon Mawr/(The Great) ap Cynan/Conan
          2. Born after AD 520/530
        4. Gwawrddur/Gwaledyr/Gwaredur (Kyruach/Kyrvach)/(Hunchback)/(Wizened)/(Bow-back)
          1. Pictish Warrior in Y Gododdin
          2. Died c AD 600
        5. Urien(s)/Urbgen
          1. Ap Cynfarch Oer ap Meirchiawngul/(Meirchion Gul) ap Gwrast/Gwrgwst Lledlwm/(the Raggéd) ap Ceneu ap Coel Hen
          2. (North Briton)/(Northern Welsh), King, Rheged/Gwynedd
          3. Late 6th Century AD
            • Born c AD 535
            • Reigned AD 570/579 to AD 590
            • Died AD 579/591
        6. Áedá(i)n/Aiden/Aidan(us)
          1. Mac Gabrain/Gabrán/Goran(us) mac Domanga(i)rt/Dongard(us) Reti mac Fergus Mór (and Duinseach ingen Dui ingen Duach) mac E(a)rc
          2. North Briton King, Dalriada/Dál Riata
          3. Born c AD 534/535/536
          4. Flourished AD 570/574 to c AD 605/606/609
          5. Died AD 603/608
      7. Early Mediæval era Heroes/Deities — AD 590 to AD 871
        1. Mongán
          1. (Son of)/mac/(m)ap/fab Manawydan/Manannán/Mandubracius/Mandubratius/Mandubracios/Mandubracius/Mandubratius/Mannuētiagnos
          2. Prince and King of Ulster, Ireland
          3. Died c AD 625
        2. Cadwaladr Fendigaid/(The Blesséd)
          1. Ap Cadwallon II (and (H)elen/Alefrith/Alcfrith of Mercia, daughter of Pybba of Mercia) ap Cadfan ap Iago ap Beli ap Rhun Hir/(The Tall)
          2. Northern Welsh King, Gwynedd
          3. Born c AD 615
          4. Reigned c AD 630/655 to c AD 664/682
          5. Died c AD 664/681
        3. Sigurðr/Sigurd(r)/Siegfried/Sifrit/(Sivard Snarensven(d))
          1. Son of Sigmund and Hiordis
          2. Norse/Germanic Hero
          3. Popular as early as AD 98, or AD 457/500, or AD 750 to AD 1000/1100/1500
        4. Charlemagne/(Charles the Great)/(Karl der Große)/(Carlo Magno)/Carlomagno/(Charles I)
          1. Son of Pepin the Short, and Bertrada of Laon
          2. King of the Franks, King of the Lombards, and Holy Roman Emperor
          3. Born 2 Apr AD 742
          4. Reigned AD 768 to AD 814
          5. Died 28 Jan AD 814
      8. True Mediæval era Heroes/Deities — AD 871 to AD 1485
        1. Æthelstan
          1. Son of Edward the Elder (son of Alfred the Great and Ealhswith) and Ecgwynn(a)
          2. King of the Anglo-Saxons and the English
          3. Born AD 894/895
          4. Reigned AD 924 to AD 939
          5. Died 27 Oct AD 939
        2. Alfonso I
          1. Son of King Sancho Ramírez
          2. King of Aragon and Pamplona (later Navarre)
          3. Called the Battler or the Warrior (Spanish: el Batallador)
          4. Born AD 1073/1074
          5. Reigned 28 September AD 1104 to 7/8 September AD 1134
          6. Died 7/8 September AD 1134 (Poleñino, Spain)
        3. Saint Galgano Guidotti
          1. Born AD 1148 (Chiusdino, Siena, Italy)
          2. Died 3 December AD 1181 (Montesiepi, Tuscany, Italy)
        4. (Ilya Muromets)/(Илья Муромец)/(Ilya of Murom)/(Ilya Murometz/Musomyets)/(Ilya Pechersky)
          1. Son of a farmer
          2. Folk hero of ancient Ruś
          3. A ‘bogatyr’ (akin to knight-errant)
          4. A character of many ‘bylinas’ (East Slavic mediæval epic poems)
          5. Flourished AD 980–1015/1205–1255/1405–1453
        5. Marco/Marko/Марко Mrnjavčević/Мрњавчевић
          1. Son of Vukašin Mrnjavčević and Alena
          2. Prince/(Краљевић/Kraljević)/King/(Крали/Крале)
          3. De jure Serbian king, de facto ruler of territory in western Macedonia
          4. Born c AD 1335
          5. Reigned AD 1371–1395
          6. Died 17 May AD 1395 in Rovine, Wallachia (now Romania)
      9. Early Modern era Heroes/Deities — AD 1485 to AD 1624
        1. Ar(h)ua(n)(ra)n
          1. Son of Okpame/Ozolua and Ohonmin
          2. King/Prince/Duke of Udo/Idubor
          3. Flourished AD 1504/1550
  3. Beginnings
    1. Family and Retainers (traditional)
      1. Grandfather (paternal)
        1. King Constans
        2. King Constantine
      2. Father — Uther Pendragon
      3. Mother
        1. Igraine/Ygraine/Igerne/Igerna/Ygerna/Eig(y)r
        2. Arnive
      4. Uncles
        1. Ambrosius/Pendragon/Pandragon
        2. Constans
        3. Ardan
        4. David
        5. Gweir
        6. Gweir False Valor
        7. Gweir Servant of Birds
        8. Gweir White Shaft
        9. Gwrfoddw the Old
        10. Llygadrudd Emys
        11. Maine
        12. Yttra
      5. Aunts
        1. Enfeidas
        2. Goleuddydd
      6. Foster Father — (H)ector/Antor
      7. Foster Brother — Cei/Kay
      8. Wives and Lovers
        1. Guenevere/Gwenhwyfar
        2. Lisanor/Lyzianor
        3. Margawse
        4. Angellica
        5. Countess of Orofoise’s Sister
        6. Dollallolla
        7. Emmeline
        8. Gamile
        9. Gilaneier
        10. Grey-Hammed Lady
        11. Inogen
        12. Lady of the Blonde Hair
      9. Sons
        1. Amr
        2. Borre/Bohort
        3. Llacheu/Loholt
        4. Mordred
        5. Adeluf III
        6. Aristes
        7. Art Aionfhear
        8. Arthur the Less
        9. Garnot
        10. Gwydre
        11. Ilinot
        12. Morgan the Black
        13. Patrick the Red
      10. Daughters
        1. Gyneth
        2. Huncamunca
      11. Grandchildren
        1. Black Knight
        2. Fairy Knight
        3. Melehan
      12. Sisters
        1. Acheflour
        2. Anna/Gwyar
      13. Half-Sisters
        1. Clarine/Blasine/(Elaine of Tintagel)
        2. (M)orc(h)ades/Sangive/(Anthonje/Seife)/Belisent/Albagia/Margawse/Morgause
        3. (Morgan le Fay)/Brimesent/Dioneta
        4. Olimpia/Felice
      14. Brothers
        1. Cador
        2. Gormant
        3. Madawg
      15. Cousins
        1. Bagdemagus
        2. Borel
        3. Constantine
        4. Culhwch
        5. Helis
        6. Hoel of Brittany (also an ally)
        7. Illtud
        8. Ither of Gaheveiz
        9. Lady of Cabrion
        10. Laris
        11. Leonce
        12. Lidoine
        13. Mark
        14. Mordred
        15. Richard
      16. Brothers-in-law
        1. King Lot (m Margawse)
        2. King Nentres (m Elaine)
        3. King Uriens (m Morgan)
      17. Nephews
        1. Agravain
        2. Gaheris
        3. Gareth
        4. Gawain
        5. Mordred
        6. Beacurs
        7. Borel
        8. Constantine
        9. Galescalain/Galeshin
        10. Gwidon
        11. Hoel
        12. Lancelot
        13. Meleranz
        14. Perceval
        15. Tristan
        16. Yvain
      18. Nieces
        1. Clarissant
        2. Cundrie
        3. Elaine
        4. Elyabel
        5. Itonje
        6. Lore
        7. Soredamors
      19. Mentor — Merlin
      20. Allies (a sampling)
        1. King Ban
        2. King Bors
        3. Carbarecotins
        4. Archbishop of Canterbury
      21. Lieges (a sampling)
        1. Damsel of the Marches
        2. Lady of Nohaut
      22. Would-be-paramours
        1. Annowre
        2. Camille
    2. The “Constantines”
      1. Name Forms
        1. Constantin(i)us
        2. Constans/Κῶνστας
        3. Constant(i)us
        4. Constantin(e)/Constantín
        5. Custen(n)in/Custennyn
        6. Kusten(n)in/Kusten(h)in/Kustenan/Mustennin
        7. Κωνσταντίνος/Konstantios
        8. Causantín/Còiseam
      2. Individual “Constantines”
        1. Valerius Constantinus Dardanus
          1. Son of Flavius Titus Eutropius and Claudia Crispina
          2. Born AD 235
          3. Died AD 279
        2. Maximianus Constans
          1. Son of Valerius Constantinus Dardanus
          2. Born AD 250
          3. Died AD 280
        3. Constantius I Chlorus/(the Pale)
          1. (Caesar Gaius Flavius Valerius Constantius Augustus)
          2. Son of Flavius Titus Eutropius and Claudia Crispina
          3. Born 31 Mar AD 250
            • (Illyrian; Dardania, Moesia Superior)
            • (Julius Constantius)
          4. Reigned 1 May AD 293 to 25 Jul AD 306
          5. (Roman Emperor Flavius Valerius Constantius Casesar Herculius)
          6. Father of Constantine I the Great
          7. Died 25 Jul AD 306 (Eboracum, Britain)
        4. Constantine I the Great
          1. (Caesar Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantin(i)us Augustus)
          2. Son of Constantius I Chlorus and Helena
          3. Born 27 Feb AD 265/272 or after AD 280
            • (Naissus, Moesia Superior)
            • (Gaius Flavius Valerius Constantinus)
          4. Reigned 25 Jul AD 306 to 22 May AD 337
          5. (Roman Emperor Flavius Valerius Constantinus Caesar Heculius)
          6. Died 22 May AD 337
            • (Anyrona, Bithynia)
            • (Imperator Constantinus Maximus Augustus)
        5. Maximianus Constans
          1. Son of Flavia Maxima Fausta (illegitmate)
          2. Born AD 296/297/322 (Atles, Italia)
          3. Father of Flavius Clemens Magnus Maxim(us)/Maxianus/Maxen/Macsen Augustus (II) Wledig/Gulecic/Guletic
          4. Died AD 350 (Aquileia, Italia)
        6. Constantine II
          1. (Caesar Flavius (Claudius/Julius) Constantinus Augustus)
          2. Son of Constantine I the Great and Flavia Maxima Fausta
          3. Born 7 Feb/Aug AD 316/317
            • (Arles/Arelate, Viennensis)
            • (Flavius Claudius Constantinus)
          4. Reigned 1/9/22 May/Sep AD 317 to early Apr AD 340
          5. (Roman Emperor Flavius Claudius Constantinus Augustus)
          6. Died AD 340
        7. Constans I
          1. (Caesar Flavius Julius Constans Augustus)
          2. Son of Constantine I the Great and Flavia Maxima Fausta
          3. Born c AD 320/323 (Flavius Constans)
          4. Reigned 25 Dec AD 333 to 18 Jan/Feb AD 350
          5. (Roman Emperor Flavius Constans Caesar Vicus Helena)
          6. Died 18 Jan/Feb AD 350
            • (Pyrenees, Gaul)
            • (Flavius Claudius Constans Maximus Victor ac Triumphator Augustus)
        8. Constantius II
          1. (Caesar Flavius Julius/Valerius Constantius Augustus)
          2. Son of Constantine I the Great and Flavia Maxima Fausta
          3. Born 7 Aug AD 317
            • (Sirmium/(Sremska Mitrovica), Savia/Sebia, Pannonia Inferior)
            • (Flavius Julius Constantius)
          4. Reigned 8/13 Nov AD 323/324 to 3 Nov AD 361
          5. (Roman Emperor Flavius Julius Constantius Caesar)
          6. Died 3 Nov AD 361 (Tarsus, Mopsucrenae/Mopsuestia, Honorias, Cilicia)
        9. Constantine the Blessed/Great
          1. (Custennin Fendigaid/Fawr)/(Custennyn map Macsen)
          2. Son of Flavius Clemens Magnus Maxianus/Maxim(us)/Maxen Augustus (II) Wledig and Elen/Helena ferch Lwyddog/(of the Host) ab Einudd
          3. Born AD 360
          4. Flourished/Reigned c AD 395 (King of North-West Wales)
          5. Father of Owain and Eiludd
        10. Constantine III/II
          1. (Flavius Claudius Constantinus)/(Constantius III)/Custennin
          2. Born c AD 370/375
          3. Son of Selyf(an)/Salomon/Solomon I
          4. Father of Constans II and Julianus
          5. Grandfather of Arth
          6. Reigned AD 407(/409) to Aug/Sep AD (409/)411 (Western Roman Emperor)
          7. Died by/before 18 Sep AD 411 (Arelate, Viennensis)
        11. Constantius III
          1. (Flavius Constantius Augustus)
          2. Son of Malvius
          3. Born AD 360/370 (Dalmatia; Naissus, Dacia, Moesia Superior)
          4. Father of Aurelius Ambrosius the Elder (Duce of Caer Gloui) and Valentinian III (Western Roman Emperor)
          5. Reigned 8 Feb to 2 Sep AD 421 (Western Roman Emperor)
          6. Died 2 Sep AD 421 (Ravenna, Italia Annonaria)
        12. Constans II Augustus
          1. Son of Constantine III/II (Flavius Claudius Constantinus)/(Constantius III)/(Custennin)
          2. Reigned AD 408 to AD 411/425 (Western Roman Emperor)
          3. Died AD 411/425
        13. Constantin(e)
          1. (Biduz/Custennin/Constantinus I)
          2. Son of Selyf(an)/Salomon/Solomon I
          3. Born AD 375/405/435
          4. Reigned c AD 433 (Prince of the Cornouaille)
          5. Father of Uther/Uibar/Iubur/Iubar/I(o)bhar/Ambros(ius)/Emrys/Embreis
          6. Grandfather of Art(h)ur
          7. Died AD 421/446 /471
        14. Constantine Gorneu/Corneu
          1. (Constantine (II)/(Custennin/Custenin Cerniw/Cernyw)/Constantinus/Kusten(h)in/Kustenan)
          2. Son of Conomor/Conomar/Kynor/Kynuawr/Cynfa(w)r ap Tutwal/Tudwal
          3. Born c AD 411
          4. Father of Erbin, Merion, and Uther/Uthyr/Ythr Pendragon/(ben dragwn)
          5. Reigned c AD 435 to AD 443 (King of Cornwall/or Gywyssing)
          6. Died AD 443
        15. Kusten(n)in/Kusten(h)in/Custen(n)in/Mustennin
          1. Son of Anlawdd/Annlawdd/Amlawt/Amlawd(d) Wledeg/(G)wledig/Gwledic/Guletic(us) ap Cynwal ap Frwdwr and Gwen(n) ferch Cunedda
          2. Born AD 410/425 (Isca, Dumnonia, West Wales)
          3. Brother of Yspaddaden/Ysbadadden, Goleuddydd, Rieingulid, Dywana, and Eig(y)r/Ygerna/Ygerne/Ygraine/Igraine
          4. Reigned c AD 452/453 (King of the Britons/Bretons/Domnonée)
          5. Father of Goreu and Uverian/Uthyr/(Uther (Pendragon))/(Uter Pandragon)/Utherpendragon/(Ythr ben dragwn)
          6. Grandfather and Uncle of Arthyr/Arthur and Anna
          7. Paternal descent of Arthyr/Arthur from Llyr:
            • (Llyr, Brân, Caradoc, Emiled/Eudaf/Evdaf, Cynan/Kynan/Conan,
            • Kadwr/Kadifen/Kadien/Gadeon, Gwarvawr/Giodion, Ffr(e)wdwr, Kynwal, Amlawdd, Kusten(n)in)
          8. Less likely alternate paternal descent from Joseph of Arimathea:
            • (Joseph of Arimathea, Eugen, Bron, Helianus, ..., Jos(s)ue/Joshua, [Aminaddo/Amynadape/Aminadappe,]
            • Carcelois/Carelou/Cartheloys, Manad/Mangel/Manaal/Manael, ..., Lambor/Lanbar, Affawdd Wledeg, Custenin)
          9. Died (Dumnonia, West Wales)
        16. Constantine Mor mac Erc
          1. (Constantius I, Constantinus I)
          2. Son of Erc
          3. Born c AD 473/462/513
          4. Reigned c AD 457 to AD 479, or AD 506 (King of Scots Dalriada)
          5. Died AD 479/506/517
        17. Constantine III/Corneu
          1. (Custennin III)/Constantinus)
          2. Son of Cado/Cador/Cadwy mab Geraint
          3. Born c AD 520/525
          4. Reigned c AD 530 to AD 560, or AD 530 to AD 540, or AD 537 to AD 538
          5. (King of Dumnonia, or of the Damnonii of the (Hen Ogledd)/(Old North))
          6. Died 9 Mar AD 576/589
        18. Tiberius II Constantine
          1. (Flavius Tiberius Constantinus)
          2. Born c AD 535
          3. Reigned 5 Oct AD 578 to 14 August AD 582 (Eastern Roman Emperor)
        19. Constantine I
          1. (Custennin/Constantinus)
          2. Son of Riderch Hael
          3. Born c AD 570
          4. Reigned AD 612 to shortly after (King of Strathclyde)
          5. Died shortly after AD 636
        20. Constantine III
          1. (Κωνσταντίνος Γʹ, Ἡράκλειος νέος Κωνσταντῖνος)
          2. (Heraclius New Constantine)/(Heraclius Novus Constantinus Augustus)
          3. Son of Heraclius and Fabia Eudokia
          4. Born 3 May AD 612
          5. Reigned 11 Feb to 6/20/24/26 Apr/May AD 641 (Eastern Roman Emperor)
          6. Father of Constans II (Constantus II)
          7. Died 20/24/26 Apr/May AD 641
        21. Constantine Heraclius
          1. (Flavius Constantinus Heracli(an)us Augustus)
          2. (Ἡρακλωνᾶς, Heraklonas, Herclianus)
          3. Son of Heraclius and Martina
          4. Born AD 626
          5. Reigned 11 Feb AD 638/641 to Sep/Oct AD 641 (Eastern Roman Emperor)
          6. Died AD 641
        22. Constantus II
          1. (Κῶνστας Βʹ, Constans II, Pogonatus)
          2. (Κωνσταντίνος ὁ Πωγωνάτος, Constantine the Bearded)
          3. (Heraclius/Flavius Constantinus Augustus)
          4. Son of Constantine III (Heraclius New Constantine) and Georgia
          5. Born 7 Nov AD 630 (Constantinople) (Herkleios)
          6. Reigned Summer/Sep AD 641 to 15 Sep AD 668 (Eastern Roman Emperor Constantine)
          7. Father of Constantine IV the Bearded
          8. Died 15 Sep AD 668 (Syracuse of Sicilly)
        23. Constantine IV the Bearded
          1. (Κωνσταντίνος Δʹ ὁ Πωγωνάτος)
          2. (Flavius Constantinus Augustus)
          3. Son of Constans II (Constantus II) and Fausta
          4. Born c AD 652 (Constantinople)
          5. Reigned 15 Sep AD 668 to 14 Sep AD 685 (Eastern Roman Emperor)
          6. Died 14 Sep AD 685 (Constantinople)
        24. Constantine V the Dung-named
          1. (Κωνσταντίνος Εʹ ὁ Κοπρώνυμος)
          2. Son of Leo III the Isaurian and Maria
          3. Born Jul AD 718 (Constantinople)
          4. Reigned 18 Jun AD 720/741 to 14 Sep AD 775 (Byzantine Emperor)
          5. Died 14 Sep AD 775
        25. Constantine VI
          1. (Κωνσταντίνος Στʹ)
          2. Son of Leo IV and Irene
          3. Born AD 771
          4. Reigned 8 Sep AD 776/780 to Aug AD 797 (Byzantine Emperor)
          5. Died before AD 805
        26. Constantine ap Judon
          1. Son of Judon and a daughter of Meriadoc
          2. Born c AD 750/800 (Cornouaille(s), Ille-et-Vilaine, Bretagne)
          3. Flourished/Reigned c AD 780/790/792/825
            • (King/Roi of/de Brittany/Bretagne)
            • (Prince/Count/Comte of/de Co(u)rnouaille)
          4. Father of Argant/Arastagne/Aregstan/Arecstan/(d’)Argent(ael)
          5. Died AD 790/830 (Cornouaille, Ille-et-Vilaine, Bretagne/Brittany)
        27. Constantine/Causantín/Constantín mac Fergus(a)
          1. Son of Fergus(a)
          2. Born before AD 775
          3. Reigned AD 781/789 to AD 820 (King of the Picts — Kingdom of Fortriu, Dal Riada from AD 811)
          4. Father of Domnall/Donald
          5. Died AD 820
        28. Constantine II
          1. Reigned until AD 859 (King of ((Al(lt )Clud/Clut)/Strathclyde))
          2. Father of Wthyr/U(i)thyr/Uthir/Uthar/Uth(e)r/Ythr Pendraeg/Pen-Draig/Pendragon/Ben(dragon)/(ben dragwn)
        29. Constantine I
          1. (Causantín/Constantín/Còiseam mac Cináeda/Choinnich/Kenneth)
          2. Reigned AD 862/863 to AD 877 (King of the Picts — King of Alba)
          3. Father of Domnall/Dòmhnall/Donald
          4. Died AD 877 (Atholl)
    3. Arthur’s Basic Character
      1. Mythological Emperor (spiritual) — “Artaios the God/Hero”
      2. God-Appointed Sovereign (spiritual/native)
      3. British National Hero (native) — “Artur the Briton/Gael”
      4. Daring Young Warrior (native/physical)
      5. Human High King (physical) — “Arthur the High King”
      6. Petty Lecherous Tyrant (physical/foreign)
      7. World Conqueror (foreign) — “Artorius the Roman”
      8. Passive Patriarch (foreign/spiritual)
    4. Merlin and the Birth of Arthur — “The scion of a royal line, miraculously conceived
      1. Merlin is made to foretell Arthur
        1. Calling him ‘the Boar of Cornwall’
        2. The first hint of his coming
      2. Uther Pendragon was destined to become the father of Arthur
      3. The conception of Arthur is described in the following way:
        1. At the Easter gathering (says Geoffrey of Monmouth)
        2. King Uther is seized with an obsessive lust
          1. For Ygraine/Ygerna/Igerne/Igerna
          2. The beautiful wife of Gorlois, Duke of Cornwall
        3. Uther’s advances were obvious
        4. King Uther Pendragon falls in love with the married Lady Ygraine/Ygerna/Igerne/Igerna
        5. Gorlois withdrew from the court, taking his wife with him
        6. The King treated this as an insult
        7. Uther sent Gorlois an ultimatum ordering him to return
          1. When this was rejected
          2. Uther marched to Cornwall to ravage it
        8. Gorlois put Ygraine/Ygerna/Igerne/Igerna in Tintagel Castle
          1. On a coastal headland
          2. Which could only be approached by a narrow, easily guarded ridge
        9. Having stowed her beyond Uther’s presumed reach
          1. Gorlois led a force to oppose the royal army
          2. Making his base at a fort some distance away
        10. Uther surrounded Gorlois’ weaker troops and prevented their escape
        11. On a friend’s advice
          1. Uther sent for Merlin
          2. The magician gave him a potion
            • Which turned Uther into an exact likeness or replica
            • Of Ygraine’s/Ygerna’s/Igerne’s/Igerna’s husband
              • Gorlois
              • In Welsh, Gorlas
        12. So disguised
          1. Uther passed the guards at Tintagel
          2. Found his way to Ygraine/Ygerna/Igerne/Igerna
        13. Assuming Uther to be her husband
          1. She put up no resistance
          2. As a result, she conceived Arthur
        14. Meanwhile
          1. Ygraine’s/Ygerna’s/Igerne’s/Igerna’s husband
          2. The real Duke Gorlois of Cornwall
          3. Had already been killed in battle
        15. Uther then reverted back to his original form
        16. Soon afterward, married Ygraine/Ygerna/Igerne/Igerna
        17. Merlin exacts a price: Uther and Ygraine must give him the child Arthur, once born
      4. Mythically
        1. Uther can be seen
          1. As the King of shades
          2. The mysterious and veiled Being
          3. The appointer of battles
          4. With the rainbow as his buckler
        2. He appears
          1. As a kind of Mars
          2. the genius of war
      5. Additionally, when visiting Arthur’s future mother
        1. Uther assumes the form of a cloud (in Welsh, Gorlas)
        2. One can easily see how the Welsh word for cloud, “Gorlas”
        3. Becomes the French name “Gorlois”
    5. A Birthplace and A Home — “Miraculously born amid supernatural phenomena
      1. The newborn Arthur is delivered by Merlin to (H)ector/Antor
      2. This Arthur is raised alongside Cei/Kay as his brother and eventually his squire
      3. Giving this Arthur a birthplace and a home puts him in the West Country
        1. Between Land’s End
        2. And Bath
      4. Tintagel may be Geoffrey’s idea
        1. But no legend of any weight
        2. Offers another birthplace to rival it
      5. The early Welsh gave this Arthur a home in Cornwall at “Kelliwic”
        1. Perhaps an ancient fort called Castle Killibury
        2. A few miles south of Tintagel itself
      6. These and other beliefs linking an Arthur with Cornwall and Somerset seem to be too deep-rooted to challenge
      7. This Arthur is likely to have arisen in the Romanised country near the Channel
      8. This would support the idea of an Arthur
        1. Being a “prince of the tribe of Britons called Silures”
        2. Whose country was South Wales
      9. Yet the idea of Cornwall could have resulted from confusion with other “Cornwalls”
        1. There are the Cornavii and Creones/Cerones/Carnonacae/Caereni
          1. In what is now Northern Scotland
          2. Independent from 1153 BC/AD 83 to AD 552/700
          3. Not too far from the Damnonii
          4. Not too far from the Votadini
            • Portion of which became Lothian/Guotodin/Gododdin
            • As Loenois/Lyonesse
        2. The Cornovii/Cornubia/Corniu/Cernieu/Cerniw/Kerniw/Kernow/(West Wales)
          1. Modern Cornwall
          2. Independent from 351 BC to AD 1066
          3. Next to (and at times part of) Dumnonia
          4. Not too far from Powys
          5. Next to the Isles of Scilly (as Lyonesse)
        3. Thirdly, there are the Cornovii
          1. In what is now the Midlands
          2. Independent from AD 47 to AD 460
          3. Not too far from Dumnonia
          4. Next to the Ordovices (a porton of which became Powys)
        4. Then there is Cernyw/Glywyssing/(Mid-South Wales)/(Gwynllg & Edeligion, Penychen & Gorfynedd)/Morgannwg/Glamorgan
          1. Independent from AD 383 to AD 1093
          2. Near to Dumnonia
          3. Near to Powys
        5. Finally, the Cornouaille/Kerne(v)
          1. In what is now Brittany
          2. Independent from AD 387 to AD 1093
          3. Near to Domnonia
          4. Next to Poher
          5. Next to Léon/Leonais/Lyonesse
      10. Therefore, this Arthur from “Cornwall” could have derived from any or all of the above “Cornwalls”
    6. The Death of Uther — “Of whom an aged holy man prophesies a world-saving message
      1. When Arthur was fifteen
        1. Uther’s health gradually failed
        2. It became evident that the Saxons were still not cowed
      2. The Saxons brought reinforcements
        1. Kept up troublesome warfare
        2. At last disposed Uther by poison
      3. Uther drinks water from a poisoned spring
      4. When Uther dies, the land is without a leader
      5. Merlin announces to assembled British nobles (barons) of God’s test for Uther’s successor
        1. The Saxons could not prevent Arthur from being crowned King
        2. At a general assembly of nobles at Silchester
        3. At the hands of the holy Dubricius Archbishop of Caerleon, the City of Legions
    7. Excalibur — “Whose childhood deeds proclaim his divine character
      1. Ensuing events differ, but all include the “Sword in the Stone/Anvil”
      2. Before the Cathedral, appears a great stone topped with an anvil imbedded with a sword
      3. Merlin informs that only the intended king will be able to draw the sword
      4. All present try, all fail
      5. Arthur is sent to find Kay’s sword
      6. Arthur sees the sword in stone and easily draws it
      7. Barons (nobles) make Arthur repeat the drawing
      8. Arthur overcomes British nobles’ objections (they eventually recognise his claim to the throne)
      9. Arthur comes into possession of the celebrated miraculous sword called
        1. Caliburn
        2. Excalibur
        3. Or the Great Glaive of the Mighty Enchanter
        4. When he receives it from his father
      10. It is also said that Arthur receives the miraculous sword
        1. Caliburn
        2. Later Excalibur
        3. From a hand that emerges from a lake
      11. This sword is stated as being made in the Isle of Avalon
      12. In still other versions, Excalibur is the Sword in the Stone
      13. It is stated that Arthur
        1. Draws only against the Wild Beasts of the forest and not against the Saxons
        2. Uses the sword Caliburnus in the battle of Badon
          1. Along with the shield Pridwen
          2. And the lance Ron
      14. The shield, sword, and lance were all derived more or less directly from Welsh sources
        1. For in Culhwch ac Olwen Arthur mentions
          1. His sword Caledfwlch
          2. His spear Rhangomyniad
        2. Both in Culhwch ac Olwen and in Preiddeu Annwfyn
          1. Arthur voyages in a ship called Prydwen
          2. It is unclear how the ship Prydwen is related to the shield Pridwen
    8. Merlin and the Instruction of Arthur — “Is awakened to his proper task
      1. With Merlin as advisor
      2. Arthur is crowned and begins his reign
  4. Duty and Battles
    1. Duty — “Departs to engage in arduous forest disciplines
      1. Introduction to Duty
      2. Dux Bellorum
        1. This Arthur was a general
          1. Appointed by the chiefs of the still sub-Roman province
          2. To a rank representing that of the earlier “Comes Britanniae”
            • The supreme Roman commander
            • Whose duty it had been to defend the province anywhere his troops were necessary
            • Whose troops were predominately cavalry
        2. This theory was prompted by Nennius’ phrase
          1. “cum regibus Britonum, sed ipse erat dux bellorum”
          2. Which was interpreted as a title analogous to “Comes Britanniae”
          3. “Dux Britanniarum” was his lieutenant in northern Britain
          4. The Latin is held to mean that Arthur was an inferior elected as general
            • “then Arthur fought against them Saxon men
            • in those days alongside with the Kings of the Britains,
            • but he himself was only ‘Dux Bellorum’”
        3. But it is surely doubtful whether the phrase implies a high official rank
        4. Nennius’ words might well mean “along with the other kings of the Britons, but he was their leader in the battles”
        5. The words Dux Bellorum may not be an actual title at all but simply a description
          1. “Commander in the battle”
          2. “Duke of battles”
          3. “Chief of battles”
        6. This Arthur was not a king
          1. He was a general who revived the cavalry of the later Empire
          2. Developed for in-depth mobile defense
        7. In the last phase of Roman Britain
          1. One of its supreme officers was the Comes Britanniarum
          2. “Count of the Britains”
          3. He commanded cavalry units
          4. Had a roving commission to go anywhere
        8. This Arthur was a Comes Britanniarum
          1. Either appointed
          2. Or self-appointed
        9. This gives us reason to think that Arthur
          1. Was either a freelance who offered the services
            • Of himself
            • And his band of followers
            • to whatever king would pay best
          2. Or an overall commander
            • Of the combined forces of several small, independent sovereignties
            • Into which the south of sub-Roman Britain had evolved
        10. The size of this combined force would have been about 1000
        11. This Arthur would have been appointed
          1. Collectively by
          2. And acting on behalf of a number of the kings of the Britons
        12. This “elective sovereign”
          1. “Paramount over the many kings of Briton”
          2. Was sometimes called Pendragon
        13. As an agent of a superbus tyrannus leading the armies of the subordinate tyranny
          1. The most likely title for Arthur would be “magister militum per Britannias”
          2. ‘General Officer Commanding British Land Forces’
      3. Mobile Cavalry Force
        1. Warriors on horseback
          1. Were not as common during Arthur’s life
          2. As they were in the Middle Ages
          3. This was because the stirrup had not yet reached western Europe
        2. On the other hand
          1. The Saxons were not horsemen at all
          2. Mounted Britons would have had clear advantage through
            • Speed
            • Surprise
            • And psychological impact
          3. They could have fought as “mounted commandos”
        3. Some of the oldest Welsh poetry speaks of nobles riding into battle
          1. Their forebears may have done the same with this Arthur as their leader
          2. This Arthur won his battles by use of mobile horsemen
            • Against the pedestrian Saxons
            • And could move such men rapidly about the country
        4. If we assume that most if not all of this Arthur’s troops were mounted
          1. And that this Arthur, the soldier, retained some knowledge
            • Of Roman
            • Or even Byzantine military practice and training
          2. This Arthur could have organised
          3. And been in charge
            • Of a small
            • Fully equipped
            • Mobile cavalry force
        5. This Arthur’s troops would have fought
          1. With sword
          2. Lance
          3. And javelin
          4. Approaching the enemy in a series of rushes
          5. Rather than in a coordinated cavalry charge
        6. Most warriors were armed
          1. With spears
          2. Carried shields
          3. And had their bodies protected by tough leather cuirasses
        7. Fewer fought with swords
          1. Probably long cavalry swords
          2. Of the type borrowed by Roman cavalry units
          3. From the earlier “Celts”
        8. High ranking officers wore chain-mail and helmets
        9. This Arthur, when on parade
          1. Though not necessarily on the battlefield
          2. Would have worn a uniform
            • Based on that of a Roman emperor
            • Or high-ranking general
              • A fine knee-length tunic and breeches
              • A leather jerkin with metal-studded fringe to protect the abdomen
              • And a cloak pinned at the shoulder with a penannular brooch
        10. Although ancient Rome had a social class of Knights
          1. Known as Equites (Horsemen)
          2. No men like the medieval knight
            • Of later Arthurian Romance
            • Would have existed in this Arthur’s time
          3. Mailed cavalry had played a major role in warfare for more than a century
        11. Could the accounts of King Arthur’s Knights
          1. In Geoffrey of Monmouth and later writers
          2. Echo some tradition of British cavalry based on the late-imperial model?
      4. A Northern Arthur
        1. This Arthur could have been an exclusively northern figure
          1. Making all of his typically Kentish battles false
          2. This idea has been discredited in the eyes of “Celticists”
            • By the philological (linguistic) excesses of some of its supporters
            • And their partiality in argument
        2. The view is that since one of the names of his battles is certainly northern
          1. Coed Celyddon
          2. And one or two others may be
          3. That all or most of them must be
          4. Some writers even say that Badon is
            • Or must be made to be
            • A northern battle as well
        3. The idea is that the suspicion arising from the wide dispersal of the battles
          1. Is misplaced since they are not in fact widely apart
          2. Even though Lennox and Chester are separated by over 200 miles
        4. The difficulty that this Arthur was fighting the Saxons
          1. And there were none near Chester
          2. Or in the North during this Arthur’s lifetime
          3. Is met by supposing that it was really the Picts or Scots
          4. And by stressing Nennius’ story that Octha and Ebissa
            • Settled temporarily somewhere south of the Forth
            • Before coming to Kent
        5. But no amount of ingenuity can make Badon anything
          1. But a battle against the Saxons or Jutes
          2. In what is now southern England
        6. This Arthur could have fought Picts in Strathclyde
          1. And conceivably the Angles and Saxons in Northumbria
          2. If we regard it as plausible that an early immigrant body
            • Was planted by their British host in Lothian
            • As a defense against the Picts
            • And later abandoned this ungrateful task
            • Turned against the Britons
            • And joined their kinsmen in Kent
        7. If so, the fact of a British campaign against them in the North
          1. Might have been almost totally forgotten by Nennius’ time
          2. Apart from one or two meaningless names
          3. When it was eclipsed by their presence in the South
          4. And by the glorious victory of Badon
        8. There seems to be very little evidence to support this Arthur
          1. Being exclusively
          2. Or even predominantly a Northern character
      5. Relations with the Monks
      6. Military Significance, and Role as Restitutor and Cosmocrator
    2. Battles — “Which confront him, finally, with a supernatural adversary, over whom victory is achieved and established
      1. Introduction to Arthur’s Battles
      2. First Battle – River Glein/(pure/clear)
        1. Northumberland Glen
        2. Lincolnshire Glen
      3. Next Four Battles — River Dubglas/(blue-black/black-stream) in Linnuis/Lininuis district
        1. River
          1. Douglas
          2. Dulais
          3. Dawlish
          4. Divelish
          5. Devil’s Brook
          6. Blackwater
        2. District
          1. Lindenses/(the people of Lindum)
          2. Lindensia/(Land of Lindum)
            • Lindsey of Lincolnshire
            • North of the Clyde estuary, Scotland
          3. Lindinienses/(the people around Lindinis)
            • Ilchester, Somerset
            • The Lennox, Scotland
      4. Sixth Battle — River Bassas/(shallow)
        1. Cambuslang
        2. Lothian coast near Bass Rock
        3. Baschurch, Shropshire
        4. Old Bassing, Hampshire
        5. Cerdicesford/Charford, Hampshire
        6. Basingstoke
        7. Bassenthwaite Lake, Cumbria
        8. Bassen Beck, Cumbria
        9. Multiple Bass prefix names in Yorkshire
        10. Shalbourne, Wiltshire
        11. Parret/Brue, west of Glastonbury, Somerset
      5. Seventh Battle — (Celidon(ian Wood))/(Cat Coit Celidon)/(Silva Celidonis)
        1. Caledonia/(the Caledonii) lay north of the Forth-Clyde line, in the Highlands
        2. Silva Caledoniae
        3. North of Carlisle and the Antonine Wall, in the Southern Uplands in Strathclyde
      6. Eighth Battle – Castle/Din Guinnion
      7. Ninth Battle – (City of the Legion)/(urbes Legionis)/(Cair L(eg)ion)/Caerleon
        1. Chester-upon-Dee
        2. Caerleon-on-Usk
      8. Tenth Battle – ((Traith) Tribruit)/(Traeth Tryfrwyd)
      9. Eleventh Battle – Mons Agned/Breguoin
        1. Agned/Edinburgh
        2. Breguoin
          1. Bregomion/Brewyn/Bremenium
          2. Breguein/Bravonium/Leintwardine
      10. Twelfth Battle – (Mount Badon)/(Badon Hill)/(Mons Badonicus)/(of Bath-Hill)
        1. AD 500
        2. Bath, Somerset
        3. Dorset
          1. Badbury/(Badda’s Fort)/(Baddan-Burg)/Baddanbyrig/Baderi
          2. (Badbury Rings, Dorsetshire)/Vindocladia/Vindogladia/Vindocladia/Bindogladia/Vindobala/Uindocladia
          3. Banbury, Dorsetshire
        4. (Liddington Castle)/(Badbury Camp), Wiltshire
        5. Badbury Hill, Berkshire
  5. Camelot
    1. Marriage to Guinevere in a Rebuilt and Restored Britain — “Marries and begats an heir
      1. Rebuilt and Restored Britaiin
      2. King Arthur Meets, Courts, and Marries the Beautiful Young Guinevere
    2. Assembled Court — “Preaching a doctrine of salvation to a company of disciples
      1. Arthur rules his land
      2. From Camelot (his favourite castle)
    3. Knights of the Round Table, A Time of Peace and Security, and the Conquest of Europe — “A smaller, elite circle of initiates
      1. Knights of the Round Table
        1. After initial wars, King Arthur sets up the Society of the Round Table
        2. The circular table (as the fellowship’s meeting place) ensures that all knights enjoy equal status
          1. Men from every land seek knighthood by King Arthur
          2. They seek fame as members of the Round Table
        3. One of the finest knights is young French Lancelot
        4. Lancelot becomes one of King Arthur’s favourites
      2. A Time of Peace and Security
        1. Nine Years
        2. Forty Years
      3. Conquest of Europe
    4. Adulteries, Adventures, and Quests — “Becomes a wandering teacher
      1. Adulteries
        1. Lancelot and Guinevere
          1. Lancelot falls in love with Queen Guinevere (and she with him)
          2. Their illicit love affair is one cause for the destruction of Arthur’s kingdom
        2. Arthur and Morgause/Margawse
          1. Arthur’s own flaws contribute to the downfall as well
          2. Despite valour and wisdom
            • King Arthur fathers Prince Mordred
            • With his half-sister Queen Morgause/Margawse
          3. Other versions make Mordred his nephew instead of illegitimate son
      2. Adventures and Quests
        1. Adventures and quests
          1. As essential elements of chivalry
          2. Draw King Arthur’s knights away
        2. They embark on the greatest quest of all
          1. That of the Holy Grail
          2. Jesus’ Last Supper Chalice
        3. No matter the length of search, the finest knights swear to seek the Grail
        4. Knowing it means Camelot’s end, King Arthur is displeased by these events
        5. Many of his best knights die in the quest, some killing each other
    5. Completion of the Grail Quest — “Performing miracles
      1. Lancelot fathers illegitimate son
        1. Galahad
        2. Conceived while Lancelot was under a spell
        3. That makes Lancelot think Elaine is Guinevere
      2. Galahad alone
        1. Free of sin and weakness
        2. Qualified to complete the Holy Grail quest
        3. Does so and then dies
      3. Sir Perceval
        1. The original Grail knight in earlier texts
        2. And Sir Bors
        3. Accompany Galahad on Grail quest
      4. Galahad alone experiences a final holy vision as he reaches the Grail
  6. Endings
    1. Betrayal: Guinevere, Lancelot, Rome, Mordred, and the Battle of Camlann — “Another, dark and treacherous, is bent on his death
      1. Abductions of Queen Guinevere
      2. Sir Lancelot’s and Queen Guinevere’s Discovery
        1. King Arthur discovers Lancelot’s and Guinevere’s love affair
          1. Arrests Guinevere
          2. Condems Guinevere to death
        2. Lancelot flees, but returns to rescue Guinevere
        3. During the ensuing battle
          1. Brothers of Gawain are killed by Lancelot
          2. Gawain and Lancelot then become enemies (formerly the closest of friends)
          3. Arthur and Lancelot also become enemies
      3. Letter from Rome
        1. Romans demand tribute from King Arthur
        2. Romans plan to attack Arthur
          1. King Arthur fights the Romans
          2. He defeats them
      4. Prince Mordred
        1. Illegitimate son/nephew of King Arthur who attempts to usurp the throne
        2. Mordred buys the allegiance of Arthur’s barons
        3. Mordred either marries or attempts to marry Queen Guinevere by lying of Arthur’s death
        4. King Arthur learns of Mordred’s treason and returns to reclaim his rights
      5. Battle of Camlann
        1. During the great Salisbury Plain battle, many knights die
        2. Arthur kills Prince Mordred (who grievously mortally wounds King Arthur)
    2. Arthur’s Last Request, the Isle of Avalon, and other Endings
      1. King Arthur’s Last Request — “One of who, less quick to learn than the rest, is given charge and becomes the model of the lay community
        1. King Arthur orders one of his knights (Sir Bedivere or Sir Girflet/Griflet)
          1. Excalibur is to be thrown
          2. Into a lake
        2. Twice his order is disobeyed
        3. On the third time
          1. Excalibur is thrown
          2. A hand
            • Rises from the water
            • Grasps the sword
            • Then disappears
      2. The Isle of Avalon
        1. King Arthur
          1. He either dies and is buried
          2. Or a boat (of women, usually including Arthur’s half-sister Morgan le Fay)
            • Takes Arthur away
            • To the Island of Avalon
        2. In most stories
          1. King Arthur is gravely wounded
          2. But does not die (he becomes immortal)
          3. His wounds will be healed
            • So he can return when Britain needs him
            • To subdue enemies
            • And once again bring peace and security to the land
      3. Other Endings
  7. Arthur’s Association with Related Physical Objects/Locations
    1. Floating Altar
    2. Arthur’s Seat
    3. Arthur’s Oven
    4. Arthur’s Bed-chamber
  8. Appendices: Geography, Genealogy, and Timeline
    1. Geography of Arthur
    2. Genealogy of Arthur
    3. Timeline of Arthur
Afterword by John Matthews

“There is more of Rome*, than of Romance, about Arthuriana”Glyn Hnutu-healh
 
*and Achaea, Akkad, Alans, Anglia, Arameans, Armorica, Assyria, Babylon, Briton, Cambria, Canaan, Cornwall, Crete, Cumbria, Dalriada, Domnonia, Egypt,
Etruscans, ExtraTerrestrials, France, Frisia, Gaul, Greece, Hindavi, Hittites, Huns, Hurrians, Idubor, Ireland, Judaea, Jutland, Lydia, Macedonia,
Mesopotamia, Mycenaea, Narts, Norse, Persia, Phoenicia, Phrygia, Picts, Saxony, Scotland, Semites, Sumer, Ugarit, and Wales — to name a few

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