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Arthur,
Lord King of Logres

None of the line items that are included in the following outline are meant to be links.
The outline itself represents the material that is to be covered in the upcoming book known by the above title (available after October 2019).

  1. Introduction to Arthur, Lord King of Logres
  2. Meaning, Origin, Existence, and Comparison: Arthur’s Name, Multiple Arthurs, and Other Kings/Emperors/Heroes/Deities
    1. Introduction to the Meaning, Origin, Existence, and Comparison: Arthur’s Name, Multiple Arthurs, and Other Kings/Emperors/Heroes/Deities
    2. Meaning and Origin of the Name Arthur
      1. Introduction to the Meaning and Origin of the Name Arthur
      2. Stone
      3. High King
      4. Lofty and Wise; or High Wisdom
      5. Good Hound/Dog
      6. Very Black
      7. Authoritative Body
      8. Green Man
      9. Fosterer
      10. Ursa Maior/Major; or Great Bear
      11. Ursa Minor; or Boötes
      12. Bear
        1. -Man
        2. -Warden
        3. -Guard(ian)
        4. -Keeper
        5. -Tail
        6. -King/Prince/Noble/Lord
        7. -like/Ursine
        8. -God
        9. -knowing
    3. Existence of Multiple Arthurs
      1. Introduction to the Existence of Multiple Arthurs
      2. “Proto-Arthur”
        1. “Arthur of the Bronze Age”
        2. (Eochu/Eocho/E(o)chaid(h)) Ollathair the Dagda, son of Elatha/Elada/Ealadha
        3. Akagamunas/Agamemnon, son of Atreus and Aerope
        4. Arktos/Arctos/Ursa Maior/(the Great Bear)/Kallisto/Callisto/(Artemis Kalliste)/Έλίκη/Helike/Helice, daughter of Lycaon
        5. “Arthur the Bear God” — Arkas/Arcas/Arcturus/Arktouros/Ar(i)ture/Arthurus/Arturis/Arctophylax/Ursa Minor/Boötes, son of Zeus and Kallisto
        6. Ardys/Ardus/Artus II, son of Gyges and Tudo
        7. “Arthur of the Iron Age”
        8. “Arthur the Druid King” — Arthfael/Arthvael/Archmail ap Seiss(y)l(l)t ap Owain ap Caph ap Blaiddyd ap Meiriawn
        9. “Arthur the Bear God” — (Mercurius) Ar(t)aius/Artiaus/Artaios/Artaois/Arteois/Artios/Ardeche/Arthe/Artois/Artus, son of Iupiter and Maia
          1. (Mercurius) Ar(t)aius/Artiaus/Artaios/Artaois/Arteois/Artios
            • (Mercurius) Ar(t)aius/Artiaus/Artaios
            • Artaois/Arteois/Artios
          2. Ardeche
          3. Arthe
          4. Artois/Artus
        10. Artio(/Cer(r)idwen)/And(a)rta(s)/Artos/Artionis/Artemis
          1. Artio(/Cer(r)idwen)
            • Artio of Muri
            • Cer(r)idwen
          2. And(a)rta(s)
          3. Artos/Artionis
          4. Artemis, daughter of Zeos/Zeus and Leto
        11. “Arthur the Roman” — Lucius Artorius Castus
        12. Artú(i)r, son of Béine/Benne Brit
        13. (Mars) Alator/Aladur/Aladwr, son of Iupiter and Iuno
        14. “Arthur the Roman” — Artorius Comes/Dux Britanniarum
        15. “Arthur of the Silures” — Arthfael(l)/Arthvael ap/ab Einydd/Eunydd/Einudd ap Gwrddwf(y)n ap Cwrrig Goruc Mawr ap Meirchion Fawr Filwr
        16. Arthun/Anwn/Annun/Anyn/Antoni(ni)us Dynod/Dimet/Donatus Gregorius ap Flavius Clemens Magnus Maxim(us)/Maxianus/Macsen Augustus (II)
        17. “Arthur of the Dobunni/Bodunni”
        18. Artorii as descendants of Sarmatian/Alan Conscripts
        19. Eothar/Eochar/Go(ch)ar
        20. Arth (Constantine III as grandfather, who is the son of Selyf(an)/Salomon/Solomon I ap Gradlon Mawr/(The Great))
        21. “Arthur of Brittany” — Arzur
        22. “Arthur the Crippled/Healed” — Arthur/Artorius/Art(h)ri
      3. “Arthur of Badon”
        1. (High King)/(Ard Ri(gh))/(Major Warlord)/Emperor
        2. Uverian/Uthyr/(Uther (Pendragon))/(Uter Pandragon)/Utherpendragon, son of Kusten(n)in/Custenin/Mustennin, son of Anlawdd/Annlawdd/Amlawt
        3. “Arthur of the Pennines” — Arthwys ap/(m)ab Mor/Mar ap Ceneu ap Coel Hen ap Coel Godebog/Guotepa(u)c
        4. “Arthur the Shadow” — Artad
        5. “Arthur”, son of Romulus August(ul)us and Ygraine (daughter of Kustennin)
        6. “Arthur of Brycheiniog” — Arthen, son of Brychan ap Anl(l)ach and Marchel(l) ferch Tewdrig
        7. Arthur/Artorius ap Anblaud/Amlawd(d)/Amlawt/Anlawd(d)/Amlodd/Amlwyd/Aflawdd/Amalg(h)aid/Amolgaid/Amlethus/Amlóði (G)wledig/Gwledic
        8. “Arthur, Duke of Battles” — Artorius (Dux Bellorum)/Soldier/Warlord
        9. “Arthur of the Silures”
        10. “Arthur of Gwynedd”
        11. Arddhu/Arrdhu/Arto/(The Green Man)
        12. “Arthur of Rheged” — Art(h)ur ic Uther/Uibar/Iubur/Iubar/I(o)bhar/Ambros(ius)/Emrys/Embreis ic Biduz/Custennin/Constantin(e)/(Constantinus I)
        13. “Arthur of Dumnonia” — Arthyr/Arthur, son of Uthyr/(Uther (Pendragon)) (and Eigyr/Igraine), son of Kusten(n)in, son of Amlawd(d) (G)wledig
        14. “Arthur, Duke of Picts” — Art(h)ur Dux Pictorum, interioris Britannia
        15. “Arthur of Elmet” — Arthwys/Arthius ap Masgwid Gloff (and Gwenllian verch Brychan) ap Gwrast Lledlwm/(The Raggéd)
        16. “Arthur of Gl(y)wys(s)ing” — Arthfael ap Einudd
      4. “Arthur of Romance”
        1. “Arthur of Demetia” — Artúir/Art(h)u(i)r m(a)(i)c Re(i)th(e)oir/Ratheoir mac/mic Congair mic Go(i)rtiben mic/map Agricola/Aergul/Alchoil/Alcon
        2. “Arthur of Gl(y)wys(s)ing” — Arthfael/Ar(th)m(a)el/Arthmail/Ar(t)mag(i)lus/Arzor, son of Hywel/Hoel(us)/Hovelus Mawr/(The Great)
        3. Artognou/Arthnou/Arthneu (descendant of Art), son of Coll (descendant of Paternus Colus)
        4. Arthur, son of Illtud/Illtyd/Eltut/Hildutus Farchog, son of Bicanus/Bec(c)anus/Bychan/Fechan
        5. Arthur/Arddun Penuchel/Penasgell/Benasgell/(Ben Uchel)/(High Head)/Wing-Headed/Arrogant, son of Eliffer Gosgorddfawr/(of The Great Army)
        6. “Arthur of Dalriada/Dál Riata” — Artúr/Artuir/Arturius mac Áedá(i)n/Aiden/Aidan(us) mac Gabrain/Gabrán/Goran(us) mac Domanga(i)rt/Dongard(us)
        7. “Arthur of Ceredigion” (Art the Lucky) — Arthfoddw ap Boddw ap Serwyl ap Uffa ou Keredigyawn/Ceredig ap Cunedag/Cuned(d)a/Cunorix
        8. “Arthur of Dyfed” — Artúir/Art(h)(ur)/Arth(en)/Arthw(y)r/Awthyr/Artorius Castus (m)ap Ped(y)r/Peder/Pet(e)r(us)/Petroc/Petuir (m)ap Kyngar/Cyngar
        9. Arthwys ab Yvor ap Cunedda ap Cunedda Menrudd ap Coel ap Cunedag/Cuned(d)a/Cunorix Wledig/(The Imperator) ap Edern/Ætern(us)
        10. “Arthur of Ceredigion” — Arthlwys ap Arthfoddw ap Boddw ap Serwyl ap Uffa ou Keredigyawn/Ceredig ap Cunedag/Cuned(d)a/Cunorix Wledig
        11. “Arthur of Kintyre/(Cind Tyre)” — Airthir/(h-)Art(h)u(i)r filio/filius/mac/(m)ap Bico(i)r/Bicair/Becuir/Bechaire/Beccurus, late of Gwynedd
        12. Art(h)u(i)r, grandfather of Feradach the cleric
        13. “Arthur of Gwent and of the Mabinogi” — Athrwys/Arthwys ap Meurig ap Tewdrig ap Llywarch ap Nynniaw ap Erb ap Erbig ap Meurig
        14. Wthyr/U(i)thyr/Uthir/Uthar/Uth(e)r Pendraeg/Pen-Draig/Pendragon/Ben(dragon), son of Constantine II of Strathclyde
        15. Æthelstan, son of Edward the Elder and Ecgwynn(a)
        16. Ar(h)ua(n)(ra)n, son of Okpame/Ozolua and Ohonmin
    4. Comparison of Other Kings/Emperors/Heroes/Deities to Arthur
      1. Introduction to the Comparison of Other Kings/Emperors/Heroes/Deities to Arthur
      2. Prehistoric/Mythic era Heroes/Deities
        1. Enlil/Ellil, son of Anu(m) and Ki/Urash/Nin-Hursag/Nin-Mah
        2. Adad/Had(d)a(d)/Haddu/Iškur, son Enlil/Ellil
        3. Dumu-Zi/Tammuz, son of Adad/Iškur and Nin-Sûna/Shala/Duttur/Gubarra
        4. A(u)s(a)r/Ser/Osiris, son of Geb/Keb and Nut
        5. Heru/Hor(us), son of A(u)s(a)r/Ser/Osiris and Ast/Isis
        6. Batraz, son of Xæmyc
        7. Viracocha/Wiracocha/Wiraqucha/(fat/foam of the sea)/(Wila Quta)/(blood lake)/(Apu Qun Tiqsi Wiraqutra)/Con-Tici/Kon-Tiki
        8. Iškur/Pid(a)r(ay)/Rapiu/Rapha, son of Enlil/Yahweh
        9. Αστεριος/Asterios/Asterius/(Starry)/Zeos/Zeus/Iup(p)iter/(Iupiter Latinus)/Jupiter, son of Αναξ/Anax/(Ruler)/Kronos/Cronus/Saturn and Rhea/Ops
        10. Il/El(kunirsa)/Yahweh/Kumarbi, son of Anu
        11. Ba’al/Ba’al-Zephon/Ba’al-Sidon/Saphon, son of Dagan
        12. Ικαριος/Ikarios/Icar(i)us of Athens/Sparta, son of Oibalos/Oebalus and Bat(e)ia/Gorgophone
        13. Moshe/Moses, son of Amran and Jochebed
        14. Ήρακλής/Hēraklēs/Heracles/Hercules/Άλκαϊος/Alkaios/Alcaeus/Άλκείδης/Alkeidēs/Alcides, son of Zeus and Alcmene
        15. Atunis/Attis, son of Agdistis and Nana
        16. Apollo(s)/Apulu, son of Zeos/Zeus and Leto
        17. Όγμιος/Ogmios/Og(i)mius/Og(h)ma, son of Elatha and Ethliu/Étain
        18. Dionysus, son of Zeos/Zeus and Semele/Persephone
        19. David/Dawud/Hamelech ben Jesse ben Obed ben Boaz/Booz ben Salma(n)/Salmon
        20. Solomon/Shlomoh/Jedidiah/Yədidya ben David/Dawud/Hamelech ben Jesse ben Obed
        21. Adon(is)/Adonai, son of Cinyras/Theias/Phoenix and Myrrha/Smyrna/Metharme/Alphesiboea
        22. Krishna, son of Vasudeva and Devaki
        23. Alexander the Great, son of Philip II and Olympias
        24. Ashoka the Great, son of Bindusara and Subhadrangi/Dharma/Janapadakalyani
        25. Hippolytus/Virbius/(Rex Nemorensis), son of Theseus and Atiope/Hippolyte/Hippolyta
        26. (Eochu/Eocho/E(o)chaid(h)) Airem, son of Finn
        27. Mit(h)ra(s)/(Shamash/Apollo), son of Enlil/Zeos/Zeus/Iupiter
        28. Bel(in)(us)/(Beli Mawr)/Dolobellus, son of Manogan/Monnogan (and Anna), ap Eneid Capuir/Capoir ne Pabo enn Arall ap Cerwyd/Pyr ap Sawl Benisel
        29. Cassibilian/Cassivellaunus/Cassivellaunos/Cas(s)wal(l)a(w)n/Caswal(l)on, son of Beli Mawr and Dôn verch Mathonwy
        30. Fergus mac Roich/Roy/Róig/Rossa
        31. Guidgen/Gwydion fab Dôn verch Mathonwy
        32. (Cú Chulainn)/(Cú Chulaind)/Cúchulain(n)/Cuhullin, son of Lugh and Deichtine (wife of Sualtam mac Róich)
        33. Gwyn(n) (son of)/ap (L(l)ud(d)/Nudd Llaw)/(Addedomaros Ereint/Erient)/Nodens/(Nuada Airgetlám) ap (Bel(in)(us))/(Beli Mawr)
        34. Manawydan/Manannán mac/(m)ap/fab/(son of) Allód/Le(a)r/Lir/Llŷr and Penardim/Penard(d)un verch (L(l)ud(d)/Nudd Llaw)
        35. Brân/Bron/Bendigeidfran/(Brân Fendigaidd)/(Blessed Crow), son of Allód/Le(a)r/Lir/Llŷr and Penardim/Penard(d)un verch (L(l)ud(d)/Nudd Llaw)
        36. Yeshu(a) ben Pant(h)era/Pandera/Pandira
        37. Caratacus/Caratacas, son of Cynfelyn/Cymbeline/Cunobelin(us), son of Tasciovanus, son of (L(l)ud(d)/Nudd Llaw)/(Addedomaros Ereint/Erient)
      3. Roman Britain era Heroes/Deities
        1. Beli(m)/Heli, son of Brân/Bron/Bendigeidfran/(Brân Fendigaidd)/(Blessed Crow) (and Anna/Enygeus) mac/(m)ap/fab Allód/Le(a)r/Lir/Llŷr
        2. Arvira(r)gus Gweirydd, son of Cynfelyn/Cymbeline/Cunobelin(us), son of Tasciovanus, son of (L(l)ud(d)/Nudd Llaw)/(Addedomaros Ereint/Erient)
        3. Coel(us)/Coilus, son of Marius/Meric and Julia
        4. Fionn Mac Cumhail(l)/Find Mac Coul/Finn Mac Cool, son of Cumhail(l)/Coul/Cool and Muirne
        5. (Coel II)/Coilus, son of Cadwan/Cadvan de Bretagne (and Gladys verch Lleiffer Mawr), son of Fiachu Straiptine Srabhteine and Aoife Gall Gaedal
        6. Þórr/Donar/Thun(o)r/Tror/T(h)or Odinsson, son of Bor/Frithuwald/Fiarlef/Frialafr/Firthleif/Friallaf/Fríallaf and Beltsa
        7. Bald(e)r/Baldur/B(a)eld(a)eg/Beldex/Beig Odinsson av Asgard de Saxony, son of Bor/Frithuwald/Fiarlef/Frialafr/Firthleif/Friallaf/Fríallaf and Beltsa
        8. (Constantine the Great)/(Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantin(i)us), son of Constantius I Chlorus and Helena
        9. Coel Godebog/Guotepa(u)c ap Tegfan/Teuhvant/Techvant/Techmant/Teuchnant ap Urban/Erb ap Grat/Gradd ap Remetel/Jumutel
        10. Flavius Clemens Magnus Maxim(us)/Maxianus/Macsen Augustus (II) Wledig/Gulecic/Guletic, son of Maximianus Constans
        11. Coel Hen ap Coel Godebog/Guotepa(u)c ap Tegfan/Teuhvant/Techvant/Techmant/Teuchnant ap Urban/Erb ap Grat/Gradd ap Remetel/Jumutel
        12. Cunedag/Cuned(d)a/Cunorix Wledig/(The Imperator) ap Edern/Ætern(us) ap Padarn/Padernus/Patern(us) Beisrud/Pesrut/(of the Red Robe)
      4. Early Sub-Roman Britain era Heroes/Deities
        1. (Teyrn(on)/Teirnyon Twr(y)(f)/Túrúf/Tory L(l)iant/Uliant/Fliant/Bliant/Blyaunt)/(Great Lord of the Tumultuous Sea)/(Monarch of the Host of the Sea)
        2. Vortiger(n)/Gwrtheyrn/Gorthe(g)yrnn/Guorthigirn/Wyrtgeorne/Vitalinus Vorteneu/Gwertheneu/Gwrthenav/(The Thin), son of Gwidawl/Vitalis
        3. Attila (the Hun), son of Mundzuk/Mundzucus/Mundiucus/Moundiou
        4. Aurelius Ambrosius the Elder (Duce of Caer Gloui), son of Flavius Constantius III Augustus, son of Malvius, son of Eucherius and Flavia
        5. Ceretic/Ceredig ap Cunedag/Cuned(d)a/Cunorix Wledig/(The Imperator) ap Edern/Ætern(us) ap Padarn/Padernus/Patern(us) Beisrud/Pesrut
        6. Caradog/Ceredig/Ceretic/Coronticus (G)wledig/Guletic ap Cynlo(u)p/Cynloyp/Cynllwyb ap Cinhil Quintillus ap Cluim Clemens ap Cursalem
        7. Riot(h)amus/Riotimus/Riutimus/Rigotamos/Rigotamus/Rigadaf ap Deroch I ap Guitol/Gwithol/Witholus ap Gradlon/Urbienus Mawr/(The Great)
        8. Brychan ap Anl(l)ach (and Marchel(l) ferch Tewdrig) ap Coronac/Cormac ap Urb mac Æd(a) ui Dessi Briscus/Brosc mac Corath/Corach
        9. Pascent/Pasgen, son of Vortiger(n)/Gwrtheyrn/Gorthe(g)yrnn/Guorthigirn/Wyrtgeorne/Vitalinus Vorteneu/Gwertheneu/Gwrthenav/(The Thin)
        10. Ambrosius/Emrys/Embreis Aurelianus Wledic/(G)wledig/Guletic the Younger, son of Biduz/Custennin/Constantin(e)/(Constantinus I) ap Selyf(an)
        11. Agricola/Aergul/Aergol/Aircol/Aricol/Alchoil/Alcon Lawhir/Llawir/Iawhir/(Long-Hand) mic/ap Tresund/Trestin/Triusin mic/ap Æda/Owein/Ewein
      5. Middle Sub-Roman Britain Era Heroes/Deities
        1. Geraint/Gereint Llyngesog ap Erbin ap (Constantine (Gorneu/Corneu))/(Custen(n)in Cerniw/or Cernyw)/Constantinus/Kustenhin/Kustenan
        2. Romulus August(ul)us, son of Flavius/Flavio Orestes (and a daughter of Romulus), son of Tatulus/Tatulo
        3. Caradoc/Caradog/Carados Vreichvras/Friechfras/Briefbras/(Strong Arm) ap Ynyr ap Dyfnwal ap Ednyfed ap Anwn Dynod ap Macsen Wledig
        4. Dyfnwal Hen ap Cinuit ap Caradog/Ceredig/Ceretic/Coronticus (G)wledig/Guletic ap Cynlo(u)p/Cynloyp/Cynllwyb ap Cinhil Quintillus
        5. Catel/Cadell Ddyrnllwg/(Gleaming Hilt) ap Categirn/Catigern/Cadeyrn Fendigaid, son of Vortiger(n)/Gwrtheyrn/Gorthe(g)yrnn/Guorthigirn/Wyrtgeorne
        6. Riocatus, son of Pascent/Pasgen, son of Vortiger(n)/Gwrtheyrn/Gorthe(g)yrnn/Guorthigirn/Wyrtgeorne/Vitalinus Vorteneu/Gwertheneu/Gwrthenav
        7. Owain D(d)an(t)(g)wyn/(White-Tooth) ap Einion Yrth/(The Impetuous) ap Cunedag/Cuned(d)a/Cunorix Wledig/(The Imperator) ap Edern/Ætern(us)
        8. Cadwaladr/Catgualart ap Me(i)r(ch)ion ap Typipion ap Cunedag/Cuned(d)a/Cunorix Wledig/(The Imperator) ap Edern/Ætern(us)
        9. Iaun/Iuan/John Reith/Riatham/Regula/(The Righteous) ap Budic/Budig I ap Aldrien/Aldroenus ap Selyf(an)/Salomon I ap Gradlon Mawr/(The Great)
        10. Ceidio/Ceidiaw/Keidyav ap/(m)ab Arthwys/Einion ap/(m)ab Mor/Mar ap Ceneu ap Coel Hen ap Coel Godebog/Guotepa(u)c
        11. Cunedda Menrudd ap Coel ap Cunedag/Cuned(d)a/Cunorix Wledig/(The Imperator) ap Edern/Ætern(us)
        12. Vortipor(us)/Vortepor(ix)/Guortepir/Gw(o)rthyfyr/Gw(e)rthefyr/Gordeber/Gartbuir ap Erbin Llawir (m)ap Triphun/Tryphun/Tyffin map Clotri
        13. Cuneglas(s)us/Cyngen/Cynlas Goch/(The Red) ap Owain D(d)an(t)(g)wyn/(White-Tooth) ap Einion Yrth/(The Impetuous)
      6. Late Sub-Roman Britain era Heroes/Deities
        1. Cerdic/Ceretic/Keretic/Ceredig/Careticus/Caraticos, son of Elafius/Elasius/Elesa/Esla/Aloc/Alusa/Hyddwn
        2. Cunedda ap Cunedda Menrudd ap Coel ap Cunedag/Cuned(d)a/Cunorix Wledig/(The Imperator) ap Edern/Ætern(us)
      7. Early Mediæval era Heroes/Deities
        1. C(h)anao I, son of Gwereg/Guérech/Waroch I
        2. Riatham ap Deroch II ap Riwal Mawr Merchou ap Deroch I ap Guitol/Gwithol/Witholus ap Urbienus/Gradlon Mawr/(The Great)
        3. Gwawrddur/Gwaledyr/Gwaredur (Kyruach/Kyrvach)/(Hunchback)/(Wizened)/(Bow-back)
        4. Urien(s)/Urbgen ap Cynfarch Oer ap Meirchiawngul/(Meirchion Gul) ap Gwrwst Lledlwm ap Ceneu ap Coel Hen
        5. Áedá(i)n/Aiden/Aidan(us) mac Gabrain/Gabrán/Goran(us) mac Domanga(i)rt/Dongard(us) Reti mac Fergus Mór mac E(a)rc mac Echach
        6. Mongán, son of Manannán mac Lir (in the form of Fiachna/Fachtna Lurga/Fiachnae mac Báetain)
        7. Cadwaladr Fendigaid/(The Blesséd) ap Cadwallon (and (H)elen/Alefrith/Alcfrith) ap Cadfan ap Iago ap Beli ap Rhun Hir/(The Tall)
        8. Sigurd(r)/Siegfried/Sifrit/(Sivard Snarensven(d)), son of Sigmund and Hiordis
        9. Charlemagne, son of Pepin the Short and Bertrada of Laon
      8. True Mediæval era Heroes/Deities
        1. (Ilya Muromets)/(Илья Муромец)/(Ilya of Murom)/(Ilya Murometz/Musomyets)/(Ilya Pechersky), son of a farmer
        2. Prince/(Краљевић/Kraljević)/King/(Крали/Крале) Marco/Marko/Марко Mrnjavčević/Мрњавчевић, son of Vukašin Mrnjavčević and Alena
  3. Beginnings
    1. Family and Retainers (traditional)
      1. Grandfather (paternal)
        1. King Constans
        2. King Constantine
      2. Father — Uther Pendragon
      3. Mother
        1. Igerne/Igraine/Eigyr
        2. Arnive
      4. Uncles
        1. Ambrosius/Pendragon/Pandragon
        2. Constans
        3. Ardan
        4. David
        5. Gweir
        6. Gweir False Valor
        7. Gweir Servant of Birds
        8. Gweir White Shaft
        9. Gwrfoddw the Old
        10. Llygadrudd Emys
        11. Maine
        12. Yttra
      5. Aunts
        1. Enfeidas
        2. Goleuddydd
      6. Foster Father — (H)ector/Antor
      7. Foster Brother — Cei/Kay
      8. Wives and Lovers
        1. Guenevere/Gwenhwyfar
        2. Lisanor/Lyzianor
        3. Margawse
        4. Angellica
        5. Countess of Orofoise’s Sister
        6. Dollallolla
        7. Emmeline
        8. Gamile
        9. Gilaneier
        10. Grey-Hammed Lady
        11. Inogen Lady of the Blonde Hair
      9. Sons
        1. Amr
        2. Borre/Bohort
        3. Llacheu/Loholt
        4. Mordred
        5. Adeluf III
        6. Aristes
        7. Art Aionfhear
        8. Arthur the Less
        9. Garnot
        10. Gwydre
        11. Ilinot
        12. Morgan the Black
        13. Patrick the Red
      10. Daughters
        1. Gyneth
        2. Huncamunca
      11. Grandchildren
        1. Black Knight
        2. Fairy Knight
        3. Melehan
      12. Sisters
        1. Acheflour
        2. Anna/Gwyar
      13. Half-Sisters
        1. Clarine/Blasine/(Elaine of Tintagel)
        2. (M)orc(h)ades/Sangive/(Anthonje/Seife)/Belisent/Albagia/Margawse/Morgause
        3. (Morgan le Fay)/Brimesent/Dioneta
        4. Olimpia/Felice
      14. Brothers
        1. Cador
        2. Gormant
        3. Madawg
      15. Cousins
        1. Bagdemagus
        2. Borel
        3. Constantine
        4. Culhwch
        5. Helis
        6. Hoel of Brittany (also an ally)
        7. Illtud
        8. Ither of Gaheveiz
        9. Lady of Cabrion
        10. Laris
        11. Leonce
        12. Lidoine
        13. Mark
        14. Mordred
        15. Richard
      16. Brothers-in-law
        1. King Lot (m Margawse)
        2. King Nentres (m Elaine)
        3. King Uriens (m Morgan)
      17. Nephews
        1. Agravain
        2. Gaheris
        3. Gareth
        4. Gawain
        5. Mordred
        6. Beacurs
        7. Borel
        8. Constantine
        9. Galescalain/Galeshin
        10. Gwidon
        11. Hoel
        12. Lancelot
        13. Meleranz
        14. Perceval
        15. Tristan
        16. Yvain
      18. Nieces
        1. Clarissant
        2. Cundrie
        3. Elaine
        4. Elyabel
        5. Itonje
        6. Lore
        7. Soredamors
      19. Mentor — Merlin
      20. Allies (a sampling)
        1. King Ban
        2. King Bors
        3. Carbarecotins
        4. Archbishop of Canterbury
      21. Lieges (a sampling)
        1. Damsel of the Marches
        2. Lady of Nohaut
      22. Would-be-paramours
        1. Annowre
        2. Camille
    2. The “Constantines”
      1. Name Forms
        1. Constantin(i)us
        2. Constans/Κῶνστας
        3. Constant(i)us
        4. Constantin(e)/Constantín
        5. Custen(n)in/Custennyn
        6. Kusten(n)in/Kustenhin/Kustenan/Mustennin
        7. Κωνσταντίνος/Konstantios
        8. Causantín/Còiseam
      2. Individual “Constantines”
        1. Valerius Constantinus Dardanus
          1. Son of Flavius Titus Eutropius and Claudia Crispina
          2. b AD 235
          3. d AD 279
        2. Maximianus Constans
          1. Son of Valerius Constantinus Dardanus
          2. b AD 250
          3. d AD 280
        3. Constantius I Chlorus/(the Pale)
          1. (Caesar Gaius Flavius Valerius Constantius Augustus)
          2. Son of Flavius Titus Eutropius and Claudia Crispina
          3. b 31 Mar AD 250
            • (Illyrian; Dardania, Moesia Superior)
            • (Julius Constantius)
          4. r 1 May AD 293 to 25 Jul AD 306
          5. (Roman Emperor Flavius Valerius Constantius Casesar Herculius)
          6. Father of Constantine I the Great
          7. d 25 Jul AD 306 (Eboracum, Britain)
        4. Constantine I the Great
          1. (Caesar Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantin(i)us Augustus)
          2. Son of Constantius I Chlorus and Helena
          3. b 27 Feb AD 265/272 or after AD 280
            • (Naissus, Moesia Superior)
            • (Gaius Flavius Valerius Constantinus)
          4. r 25 Jul AD 306 to 22 May AD 337
          5. (Roman Emperor Flavius Valerius Constantinus Caesar Heculius)
          6. d 22 May AD 337
            • (Anyrona, Bithynia)
            • (Imperator Constantinus Maximus Augustus)
        5. Maximianus Constans
          1. Son of Flavia Maxima Fausta (illegitmate)
          2. b AD 296/297/322 (Atles, Italia)
          3. Father of Flavius Clemens Magnus Maxim(us)/Maxianus/Maxen/Macsen Augustus (II) Wledig/Gulecic/Guletic
          4. d AD 350 (Aquileia, Italia)
        6. Constantine II
          1. (Caesar Flavius (Claudius/Julius) Constantinus Augustus)
          2. Son of Constantine I the Great and Flavia Maxima Fausta
          3. b 7 Feb/Aug AD 316/317
            • (Arles/Arelate, Viennensis)
            • (Flavius Claudius Constantinus)
          4. r 1/9/22 May/Sep AD 317 to early Apr AD 340
          5. (Roman Emperor Flavius Claudius Constantinus Augustus)
          6. d AD 340
        7. Constans I
          1. (Caesar Flavius Julius Constans Augustus)
          2. Son of Constantine I the Great and Flavia Maxima Fausta
          3. b c AD 320/323 (Flavius Constans)
          4. r 25 Dec AD 333 to 18 Jan/Feb AD 350
          5. (Roman Emperor Flavius Constans Caesar Vicus Helena)
          6. d 18 Jan/Feb AD 350
            • (Pyrenees, Gaul)
            • (Flavius Claudius Constans Maximus Victor ac Triumphator Augustus)
        8. Constantius II
          1. (Caesar Flavius Julius/Valerius Constantius Augustus)
          2. Son of Constantine I the Great and Flavia Maxima Fausta
          3. b 7 Aug AD 317
            • (Sirmium/(Sremska Mitrovica), Savia/Sebia, Pannonia Inferior)
            • (Flavius Julius Constantius)
          4. r 8/13 Nov AD 323/324 to 3 Nov AD 361
          5. (Roman Emperor Flavius Julius Constantius Caesar)
          6. d 3 Nov AD 361 (Tarsus, Mopsucrenae/Mopsuestia, Honorias, Cilicia)
        9. Constantine the Blessed/Great
          1. (Custennin Fendigaid/Fawr)/(Custennyn map Macsen)
          2. Son of Flavius Clemens Magnus Maxianus/Maxim(us)/Maxen Augustus (II) Wledig and Elen/Helena ferch Lwyddog/(of the Host) ab Einudd
          3. b AD 360
          4. fl/r c AD 395 (King of North-West Wales)
          5. Father of Owain and Eiludd
        10. Constantine III/II
          1. (Flavius Claudius Constantinus)/(Constantius III)/Custennin
          2. b c AD 370/375
          3. Son of Selyf(an)/Salomon/Solomon I
          4. Father of Constans II and Julianus
          5. Grandfather of Arth
          6. r AD 407(/409) to Aug/Sep AD (409/)411 (Western Roman Emperor)
          7. d by/before 18 Sep AD 411 (Arelate, Viennensis)
        11. Constantius III
          1. (Flavius Constantius Augustus)
          2. Son of Malvius
          3. b AD 360/370 (Dalmatia; Naissus, Dacia, Moesia Superior)
          4. Father of Aurelius Ambrosius the Elder (Duce of Caer Gloui) and Valentinian III (Western Roman Emperor)
          5. r 8 Feb to 2 Sep AD 421 (Western Roman Emperor)
          6. d 2 Sep AD 421 (Ravenna, Italia Annonaria)
        12. Constans II Augustus
          1. Son of Constantine III/II (Flavius Claudius Constantinus)/(Constantius III)/(Custennin)
          2. r AD 408 to AD 411/425 (Western Roman Emperor)
          3. d AD 411/425
        13. Constantin(e)
          1. (Biduz/Custennin/Constantinus I)
          2. Son of Selyf(an)/Salomon/Solomon I
          3. b AD 375/405/435
          4. r c AD 433 (Prince of the Cornouaille)
          5. Father of Uther/Uibar/Iubur/Iubar/I(o)bhar/Ambros(ius)/Emrys/Embreis
          6. Grandfather of Art(h)ur
          7. d AD 421/446 /471
        14. Constantine Gorneu/Corneu
          1. (Constantine (II)/(Custennin/Custenin Cerniw/or Cernyw)/Constantinus/Kustenhin/Kustenan)
          2. Son of Conomor/Conomar/Kynor/Kynuawr/Cynfa(w)r ap Tutwal/Tudwal
          3. b c AD 411
          4. Father of Erbin, Merion, and Uther
          5. r c AD 435 to AD 443 (King of Cornwall/or Gywyssing)
          6. d AD 443
        15. Kustennin/Kustenin/Custen(n)in/Mustennin
          1. Son of Anlawdd/Annlawdd/Amlawt/Amlawd(d) Wledeg/(G)wledig/Gwledic/Guletic(us) ap Cynwal ap Frwdwr and Gwen(n) ferch Cunedda
          2. b AD 410/425 (Isca, Dumnonia, West Wales)
          3. Brother of Yspaddaden/Ysbadadden, Goleuddydd, Rieingulid, Dywana, and Eig(y)r/Ygerne/Ygraine/Igraine
          4. r c AD 452/453 (King of the Britons/Bretons/Domnonée)
          5. Father of Goreu and Uverian/Uthyr/(Uther (Pendragon))/(Uter Pandragon)/Utherpendragon
          6. Grandfather of Arthyr/Arthur and Anna
          7. Paternal descent of Arthyr/Arthur from Llyr:
            • (Llyr, Brân, Caradoc, Emiled/Eudaf/Evdaf, Cynan/Kynan/Conan,
            • Kadwr/Kadifen/Kadien/Gadeon, Gwarvawr/Giodion, Ffr(e)wdwr, Kynwal, Amlawdd, Kustennin)
          8. Less likely alternate paternal descent from Joseph of Arimathea:
            • (Joseph of Arimathea, Eugen, Bron, Helianus, ..., Jos(s)ue/Joshua, [Aminaddo/Amynadape/Aminadappe,]
            • Carcelois/Carelou/Cartheloys, Manad/Mangel/Manaal/Manael, ..., Lambor/Lanbar, Affawdd Wledeg, Custenin)
          9. d (Dumnonia, West Wales)
        16. Constantine Mor mac Erc
          1. (Constantius I, Constantinus I)
          2. Son of Erc
          3. b c AD 473/462/513
          4. r c AD 457 to AD 479, or AD 506 (King of Scots Dalriada)
          5. d AD 479/506/517
        17. Constantine III/Corneu
          1. ((Custennin III)/Constantinus)
          2. Son of Cado/Cador/Cadwy mab Geraint
          3. b c AD 520/525
          4. r c AD 530 to AD 560, or AD 530 to AD 540, or AD 537 to AD 538
          5. (King of Dumnonia, or Damnonii of (Hen Ogledd)/(Old North))
          6. d 9 Mar AD 576/589
        18. Tiberius II Constantine
          1. (Flavius Tiberius Constantinus)
          2. b c AD 535
          3. r 5 Oct AD 578 to 14 August AD 582 (Eastern Roman Emperor)
        19. Constantine I
          1. (Custennin/Constantinus)
          2. Son of Riderch Hael
          3. b c AD 570
          4. r AD 612 to shortly after (King of Strathclyde)
          5. d shortly after AD 636
        20. Constantine III
          1. (Κωνσταντίνος Γʹ, Ἡράκλειος νέος Κωνσταντῖνος)
          2. (Heraclius New Constantine)/(Heraclius Novus Constantinus Augustus)
          3. Son of Heraclius and Fabia Eudokia
          4. b 3 May AD 612
          5. r 11 Feb to 6/20/24/26 Apr/May AD 641 (Eastern Roman Emperor)
          6. Father of Constans II (Constantus II)
          7. d 20/24/26 Apr/May AD 641
        21. Constantine Heraclius
          1. (Flavius Constantinus Heracli(an)us Augustus)
          2. (Ἡρακλωνᾶς, Heraklonas, Herclianus)
          3. Son of Heraclius and Martina
          4. b AD 626
          5. r 11 Feb AD 638/641 to Sep/Oct AD 641 (Eastern Roman Emperor)
          6. d AD 641
        22. Constantus II
          1. (Κῶνστας Βʹ, Constans II, Pogonatus)
          2. (Κωνσταντίνος ὁ Πωγωνάτος, Constantine the Bearded)
          3. (Heraclius/Flavius Constantinus Augustus)
          4. Son of Constantine III (Heraclius New Constantine) and Georgia
          5. b 7 Nov AD 630 (Constantinople) (Herkleios)
          6. r Summer/Sep AD 641 to 15 Sep AD 668 (Eastern Roman Emperor Constantine)
          7. Father of Constantine IV the Bearded
          8. d 15 Sep AD 668 (Syracuse of Sicilly)
        23. Constantine IV the Bearded
          1. (Κωνσταντίνος Δʹ ὁ Πωγωνάτος)
          2. (Flavius Constantinus Augustus)
          3. Son of Constans II (Constantus II) and Fausta
          4. b c AD 652 (Constantinople)
          5. r 15 Sep AD 668 to 14 Sep AD 685 (Eastern Roman Emperor)
          6. d 14 Sep AD 685 (Constantinople)
        24. Constantine V the Dung-named
          1. (Κωνσταντίνος Εʹ ὁ Κοπρώνυμος)
          2. Son of Leo III the Isaurian and Maria
          3. b Jul AD 718 (Constantinople)
          4. r 18 Jun AD 720/741 to 14 Sep AD 775 (Byzantine Emperor)
          5. d 14 Sep AD 775
        25. Constantine VI
          1. (Κωνσταντίνος Στʹ)
          2. Son of Leo IV and Irene
          3. b AD 771
          4. r 8 Sep AD 776/780 to Aug AD 797 (Byzantine Emperor)
          5. d before AD 805
        26. Constantine
          1. ap Judon and a daughter of Meriadoc
          2. b c AD 750/800 (Cornouaille(s), Ille-et-Vilaine, Bretagne)
          3. fl/r c AD 780/790/792/825
            • (King/Roi of/de Brittany/Bretagne)
            • (Prince/Count/Comte of/de Co(u)rnouaille)
          4. Father of Argant/Arastagne/Aregstan/Arecstan/(d’)Argent(ael)
          5. d AD 790/830 (Cornouaille, Ille-et-Vilaine, Bretagne/Brittany)
        27. Constantine/Causantín/Constantín
          1. mac Fergus(a)
          2. b before AD 775
          3. r AD 781/789 to AD 820 (King of the Picts — Kingdom of Fortriu, Dal Riada from AD 811)
          4. Father of Domnall/Donald
          5. d AD 820
        28. Constantine II
          1. r until AD 859 (King of ((Al(lt )Clud/Clut)/Strathclyde))
          2. Father of Wthyr/U(i)thyr/Uthir/Uthar/Uth(e)r Pendraeg/Pen-Draig/Pendragon/Ben(dragon)
        29. Constantine I
          1. (Causantín/Constantín/Còiseam mac Cináeda/Choinnich/Kenneth)
          2. r AD 862/863 to AD 877 (King of the Picts — King of Alba)
          3. Father of Domnall/Dòmhnall/Donald
          4. d AD 877 (Atholl)
    3. Arthur’s Basic Character
      1. Mythological Emperor (spiritual) — “Artaios the God/Hero”
      2. God-Appointed Sovereign (spiritual/native)
      3. British National Hero (native) — “Artur the Briton/Gael”
      4. Daring Young Warrior (native/physical)
      5. Human High King (physical) — “Arthur the High King”
      6. Petty Lecherous Tyrant (physical/foreign)
      7. World Conqueror (foreign) — “Artorius the Roman”
      8. Passive Patriarch (foreign/spiritual)
    4. Merlin and the Birth of Arthur — “The scion of a royal line, miraculously conceived
      1. Merlin is made to foretell Arthur
        1. Calling him ‘the Boar of Cornwall’
        2. The first hint of his coming
      2. Uther Pendragon was destined to become the father of Arthur
      3. The conception of Arthur is described in the following way:
        1. At the Easter gathering (says Geoffrey of Monmouth)
        2. King Uther is seized with an obsessive lust
          1. For Ygraine/Ygerna/Igerne/Igerna
          2. The beautiful wife of Gorlois, Duke on Cornwall
        3. Uther’s advances were obvious
        4. King Uther Pendragon falls in love with the married Lady Ygraine/Ygerna/Igerne/Igerna
        5. Gorlois withdrew from the court, taking his wife with him
        6. The King treated this as an insult
        7. Uther sent Gorlois an ultimatum ordering him to return
          1. When this was rejected
          2. Uther marched to Cornwall to ravage it
        8. Gorlois put Ygraine/Ygerna/Igerne/Igerna in Tintagel Castle
          1. On a coastal headland
          2. Which could only be approached by a narrow, easily guarded ridge
        9. Having stowed her beyond Uther’s presumed reach
          1. Gorlois led a force to oppose the royal army
          2. Making his base at a fort some distance away
        10. Uther surrounded Gorlois’ weaker troops and prevented their escape
        11. On a friend’s advice
          1. Uther sent for Merlin
          2. The magician gave him a potion
            • Which turned Uther into an exact likeness or replica
            • Of Ygraine’s/Ygerna’s/Igerne’s/Igerna’s husband
              • Gorlois
              • In Welsh, Gorlas
        12. So disguised
          1. Uther passed the guards at Tintagel
          2. Found his way to Ygraine/Ygerna/Igerne/Igerna
        13. Assuming Uther to be her husband
          1. She put up no resistance
          2. As a result, she conceived Arthur
        14. Meanwhile
          1. Ygraine’s/Ygerna’s/Igerne’s/Igerna’s husband
          2. The real Duke Gorlois of Cornwall
          3. Had already been killed in battle
        15. Uther then reverted back to his original form
        16. Soon afterward, married Ygraine/Ygerna/Igerne/Igerna
        17. Merlin exacts a price: Uther and Ygraine must give him the child Arthur, once born
      4. Mythically
        1. Uther can be seen
          1. As the King of shades
          2. The mysterious and veiled Being
          3. The appointer of battles
          4. With the rainbow as his buckler
        2. He appears
          1. As a kind of Mars
          2. the genius of war
      5. Additionally, when visiting Arthur’s future mother
        1. Uther assumes the form of a cloud (in Welsh, Gorlas)
        2. One can easily see how the Welsh word for cloud, “Gorlas”
        3. Becomes the French name “Gorlois”
    5. A Birthplace and A Home — “Miraculously born amid supernatural phenomena
      1. The newborn Arthur is delivered by Merlin to (H)ector/Antor
      2. This Arthur is raised alongside Cei/Kay as his brother and eventually his squire
      3. Giving this Arthur a birthplace and a home puts him in the West Country
        1. Between Land’s End
        2. And Bath
      4. Tintagel may be Geoffrey’s idea
        1. But no legend of any weight
        2. Offers another birthplace to rival it
      5. The early Welsh gave this Arthur a home in Cornwall at “Kelliwic”
        1. Perhaps an ancient fort called Castle Killibury
        2. A few miles south of Tintagel itself
      6. These and other beliefs linking an Arthur with Cornwall and Somerset seem to be too deep-rooted to challenge
      7. This Arthur is likely to have arisen in the Romanised country near the Channel
      8. This would support the idea of an Arthur
        1. Being a “prince of the tribe of Britons called Silures”
        2. Whose country was South Wales
      9. Yet the idea of Cornwall could have resulted from confusion with other “Cornwalls”
        1. There are the Cornavii and Creones/Cerones/Carnonacae/Caereni
          1. In what is now Northern Scotland
          2. Independent from 1153 BC/AD 83 to AD 552/700
          3. Not too far from the Damnonii
          4. Not too far from the Votadini
            • Portion of which became Lothian/Guotodin/Gododdin
            • As Loenois/Lyonesse
        2. The Cornovii/Cornubia/Corniu/Cernieu/Cerniw/Kerniw/Kernow/(West Wales)
          1. Modern Cornwall
          2. Independent from 351 BC to AD 1066
          3. Next to Dumnonia
          4. Not too far from Powys
          5. Next to the Isles of Scilly (as Lyonesse)
        3. Thirdly, there are the Cornovii
          1. In what is now the Midlands
          2. Independent from AD 47 to AD 460
          3. Not too far from Dumnonia
          4. Next to the Ordovices (a porton of which became Powys)
        4. Then there is Cernyw/Glywyssing/(Mid-South Wales)/(Gwynllg & Edeligion, Penychen & Gorfynedd)/Morgannwg/Glamorgan
          1. Independent from AD 383 to AD 1093
          2. Near to Dumnonia
          3. Near to Powys
        5. Finally, the Cornouaille/Kerne(v)
          1. In what is now Brittany
          2. Independent from AD 387 to AD 1093
          3. Near to Domnonia
          4. Next to Poher
          5. Next to Léon/Leonais/Lyonesse
      10. Therefore, this Arthur from “Cornwall” could have derived from any or all of the above “Cornwalls”
    6. The Death of Uther — “Of whom an aged holy man prophesies a world-saving message
      1. When Arthur was fifteen
        1. Uther’s health gradually failed
        2. It became evident that the Saxons were still not cowed
      2. The Saxons brought reinforcements
        1. Kept up troublesome warfare
        2. At last disposed Uther by poison
      3. When Uther dies, the land is without a leader
      4. Uther drank water from a poisoned spring
      5. Merlin announces to assembled British nobles (barons) of God’s test for Uther’s successor
        1. The Saxons could not prevent Arthur from being crowned King
        2. At a general assembly of nobles at Silchester
        3. At the hands of the holy Dubricius Archbishop of Caerleon, the City of Legions
    7. Excalibur — “Whose childhood deeds proclaim his divine character
      1. Ensuing events differ, but all include the “Sword in the Stone/Anvil”
      2. Before the Cathedral, appears a great stone topped with an anvil imbedded with a sword
      3. Merlin informs that only the intended king will be able to draw the sword
      4. All present try, all fail
      5. Arthur is sent to find Kay’s sword
      6. Arthur sees the sword in stone and easily draws it
      7. Barons (nobles) make Arthur repeat the drawing
      8. Arthur overcomes British nobles’ objections (they eventually recognise his claim to the throne)
      9. Arthur comes into possession of the celebrated miraculous sword called
        1. Caliburn
        2. Excalibur
        3. Or the Great Glaive of the Mighty Enchanter
        4. When he receives it from his father
      10. It is also said that Arthur receives the miraculous sword
        1. Caliburn
        2. Later Excalibur
        3. From a hand that emerges from a lake
      11. This sword is stated as being made in the Isle of Avalon
      12. In still other versions, Excalibur is the Sword in the Stone
      13. It is stated that Arthur
        1. Draws only against the Wild Beasts of the forest and not against the Saxons
        2. Uses the sword Caliburnus in the battle of Badon
          1. Along with the shield Pridwen
          2. And the lance Ron
      14. The shield, sword, and lance were all derived more or less directly from Welsh sources
        1. For in Culhwch ac Olwen Arthur mentions
          1. His sword Caledfwlch
          2. His spear Rhangomyniad
        2. Both in Culhwch ac Olwen and the Spoils of Annwfn
          1. Arthur voyages in a ship called Prydwen
          2. It is unclear how the ship Prydwen is related to the shield Pridwen
    8. Merlin and the Instruction of Arthur — “Is awakened to his proper task
      1. With Merlin as advisor
      2. Arthur is crowned and begins his reign
  4. Duty and Battles
    1. Duty — “Departs to engage in arduous forest disciplines
      1. Introduction to Duty
      2. Dux Bellorum
        1. This Arthur was a general
          1. Appointed by the chiefs of the still sub-Roman province
          2. To a rank representing that of the earlier “Comes Britanniae”
            • The supreme Roman commander
            • Whose duty it had been to defend the province anywhere his troops were necessary
            • Whose troops were predominately cavalry
        2. This theory was prompted by Nennius’ phrase
          1. “cum regibus Britonum, sed ipse erat dux bellorum”
          2. Which was interpreted as a title analogous to “Comes Britanniae”
          3. “Dux Britanniarum” was his lieutenant in northern Britain
          4. The Latin is held to mean that Arthur was an inferior elected as general
            • “then Arthur fought against them Saxon men
            • in those days alongside with the Kings of the Britains,
            • but he himself was only ‘Dux Bellorum’”
        3. But it is surely doubtful whether the phrase implies a high official rank
        4. Nennius’ words might well mean “along with the other kings of the Britons, but he was their leader in the battles”
        5. The words Dux Bellorum may not be an actual title at all but simply a description
          1. “Commander in the battle”
          2. “Duke of battles”
          3. “Chief of battles”
        6. This Arthur was not a king
          1. He was a general who revived the cavalry of the later Empire
          2. Developed for in-depth mobile defense
        7. In the last phase of Roman Britain
          1. One of its supreme officers was the Comes Britanniarum
          2. “Count of the Britains”
          3. He commanded cavalry units
          4. Had a roving commission to go anywhere
        8. This Arthur was a Comes Britanniarum
          1. Either appointed
          2. Or self-appointed
        9. This gives us reason to think that Arthur
          1. Was either a freelance who offered the services
            • Of himself
            • And his band of followers
            • to whatever king would pay best
          2. Or an overall commander
            • Of the combined forces of several small, independent sovereignties
            • Into which the south of sub-Roman Britain had evolved
        10. The size of this combined force would have been about 1000
        11. This Arthur would have been appointed
          1. Collectively by
          2. And acting on behalf of a number of the kings of the Britons
        12. This “elective sovereign”
          1. “Paramount over the many kings of Briton”
          2. Was sometimes called Pendragon
        13. As an agent of a superbus tyrannus leading the armies of the subordinate tyranny
          1. The most likely title for Arthur would be “magister militum per Britannias”
          2. ‘General Officer Commanding British Land Forces’
      3. Mobile Cavalry Force
        1. Warriors on horseback
          1. Were not as common during Arthur’s life
          2. As they were in the Middle Ages
          3. This was because the stirrup had not yet reached western Europe
        2. On the other hand
          1. The Saxons were not horsemen at all
          2. Mounted Britons would have had clear advantage through
            • Speed
            • Surprise
            • And psychological impact
          3. They could have fought as “mounted commandos”
        3. Some of the oldest Welsh poetry speaks of nobles riding into battle
          1. Their forebears may have done the same with this Arthur as their leader
          2. This Arthur won his battles by use of mobile horsemen
            • Against the pedestrian Saxons
            • And could move such men rapidly about the country
        4. If we assume that most if not all of this Arthur’s troops were mounted
          1. And that this Arthur, the soldier, retained some knowledge
            • Of Roman
            • Or even Byzantine military practice and training
          2. This Arthur could have organised
          3. And been in charge
            • Of a small
            • Fully equipped
            • Mobile cavalry force
        5. This Arthur’s troops would have fought
          1. With sword
          2. Lance
          3. And javelin
          4. Approaching the enemy in a series of rushes
          5. Rather than in a coordinated cavalry charge
        6. Most warriors were armed
          1. With spears
          2. Carried shields
          3. And had their bodies protected by tough leather cuirasses
        7. Fewer fought with swords
          1. Probably long cavalry swords
          2. Of the type borrowed by Roman cavalry units
          3. From the earlier “Celts”
        8. High ranking officers wore chain-mail and helmets
        9. This Arthur, when on parade
          1. Though not necessarily on the battlefield
          2. Would have worn a uniform
            • Based on that of a Roman emperor
            • Or high-ranking general
            • A fine knee-length tunic and breeches
            • A leather jerkin with metal-studded fringe to protect the abdomen
            • And a cloak pinned at the shoulder with a penannular brooch
        10. Although ancient Rome had a social class of Knights
          1. Known as Equites (Horsemen)
          2. No men like the medieval knight
            • Of later Arthurian Romance
            • Would have existed in this Arthur’s time
          3. Mailed cavalry had played a major role in warfare for more than a century
        11. Could the accounts of King Arthur’s Knights
          1. In Geoffrey of Monmouth and later writers
          2. Echo some tradition of British cavalry based on the late-imperial model?
      4. A Northern Arthur
        1. This Arthur could have been an exclusively northern figure
          1. Making all of his typically Kentish battles false
          2. This idea has been discredited in the eyes of “Celticists”
            • By the philological (linguistic) excesses of some of its supporters
            • And their partiality in argument
        2. The view is that since one of the names of his battles is certainly northern
          1. Coed Celyddon
          2. And one or two others may be
          3. That all or most of them must be
          4. Some writers even say that Badon is
            • Or must be made to be
            • A northern battle as well
        3. The idea is that the suspicion arising from the wide dispersal of the battles
          1. Is misplaced since they are not in fact widely apart
          2. Even though Lennox and Chester are separated by over 200 miles
        4. The difficulty that this Arthur was fighting the Saxons
          1. And there were none near Chester
          2. Or in the North during this Arthur’s lifetime
          3. Is met by supposing that it was really the Picts or Scots
          4. And by stressing Nennius’ story that Octha and Ebissa
            • Settled temporarily somewhere south of the Forth
            • Before coming to Kent
        5. But no amount of ingenuity can make Badon anything
          1. But a battle against the Saxons or Jutes
          2. In what is now southern England
        6. This Arthur could have fought Picts in Strathclyde
          1. And conceivably the Angles and Saxons in Northumbria
          2. If we regard it as plausible that an early immigrant body
            • Was planted by their British host in Lothian
            • As a defense against the Picts
            • And later abandoned this ungrateful task
            • Turned against the Britons
            • And joined their kinsmen in Kent
        7. If so, the fact of a British campaign against them in the North
          1. Might have been almost totally forgotten by Nennius’ time
          2. Apart from one or two meaningless names
          3. When it was eclipsed by their presence in the South
          4. And by the glorious victory of Badon
        8. There seems to be very little evidence to support this Arthur
          1. Being exclusively
          2. Or even predominantly a Northern character
      5. Relations with the Monks
      6. Military Significance, and Role as Restitutor and Cosmocrator
    2. Battles — “Which confront him, finally, with a supernatural adversary, over whom victory is achieved and established
      1. Introduction to Arthur’s Battles
      2. First Battle – River Glein/(pure/clear)
        1. Northumberland Glen
        2. Lincolnshire Glen
      3. Next Four Battles — River Dubglas/(blue-black/black-stream) in Linnuis/Lininuis district
        1. River
          1. Douglas
          2. Dulais
          3. Dawlish
          4. Divelish
          5. Devil’s Brook
          6. Blackwater
        2. District
          1. Lindenses/(the people of Lindum)
          2. Lindensia/(Land of Lindum)
          3. Lindinienses/(the people around Lindinis)
      4. Sixth Battle — River Bassas/(shallow)
        1. Cambuslang
        2. Lothian coast near Bass Rock
        3. Baschurch, Shropshire
        4. Old Bassing, Hampshire
        5. Cerdicesford/Charford, Hampshire
        6. Basingstoke
        7. Bassenthwaite Lake, Cumbria
        8. Bassen Beck, Cumbria
        9. Multiple Bass prefix names in Yorkshire
        10. Shalbourne, Wiltshire
        11. Parret/Brue, west of Glastonbury, Somerset
      5. Seventh Battle — (Celidon(ian Wood))/(Cat Coit Celidon)/(Silva Celidonis)
        1. Caledonia/(the Caledonii) lay north of the Forth-Clyde line, in the Highlands
        2. Silva Caledoniae
        3. North of Carlisle and the Antonine Wall, in the Southern Uplands in Strathclyde
      6. Eighth Battle – Castle/Din Guinnion
      7. Ninth Battle – (City of the Legion)/(urbes Legionis)/(Cair L(eg)ion)/Caerleon
        1. Chester-upon-Dee
        2. Caerleon-on-Usk
      8. Tenth Battle – ((Traith) Tribruit)/(Traeth Tryfrwyd)
      9. Eleventh Battle – Mons Agned/Breguoin
        1. Agned/Edinburgh
        2. Breguoin
          1. Bregomion/Brewyn/Bremenium
          2. Breguein/Bravonium/Leintwardine
      10. Twelfth Battle – (Mount Badon)/(Badon Hill)/(Mons Badonicus)
        1. AD 500
        2. Bath, Somerset
        3. Dorset
          1. Badbury/(Badda’s Fort)/(Baddan-Burg)/Baddanbyrig/Baderi
          2. (Badbury Rings)/Vindocladia/Vindogladia/Vindocladia/Bindogladia/Vindobala/Uindocladia
          3. Banbury
        4. (Liddington Castle)/(Badbury Camp), Wiltshire
        5. Badbury Hill, Berkshire
  5. Camelot
    1. Marriage to Guinevere in a Rebuilt and Restored Britain — “Marries and begats an heir
      1. Rebuilt and Restored Britaiin
      2. King Arthur Meets, Courts, and Marries the Beautiful Young Guinevere
    2. Assembled Court — “Preaching a doctrine of salvation to a company of disciples
      1. Arthur rules his land
      2. From Camelot (his favourite castle)
    3. Knights of the Round Table, A Time of Peace and Security, and the Conquest of Europe — “A smaller, elite circle of initiates
      1. Knights of the Round Table
        1. After initial wars, King Arthur sets up the Society of the Round Table
        2. Circular table (as the fellowship’s meeting place) ensures all knights equal status
          1. Men from every land seek knighthood by King Arthur
          2. They seek fame as members of the Round Table
        3. One of the finest knights is young French Lancelot
        4. Lancelot becomes one of King Arthur’s favourites
      2. A Time of Peace and Security
        1. Nine Years
        2. Forty Years
      3. The Conquest of Europe
    4. Adulteries, Adventures, and Quests — “Becomes a wandering teacher
      1. Adulteries
        1. Lancelot and Guinevere
          1. Lancelot falls in love with Queen Guinevere (and she with him)
          2. Their illicit love affair is one cause for the destruction of Arthur’s kingdom
        2. Arthur and Morgause/Margawse
          1. Arthur’s own flaws contribute to the downfall as well
          2. Despite valour and wisdom
            • King Arthur fathers Prince Mordred
            • With his half-sister Queen Morgause/Margawse
          3. Other versions make Mordred his nephew instead of illegitimate son
      2. Adventures and Quests
        1. Adventures and quests
          1. As essential elements of chivalry
          2. Draw King Arthur’s knights away
        2. They embark on the greatest quest of all
          1. That of the Holy Grail
          2. Jesus’ Last Supper Chalice
        3. No matter the length of search, the finest knights swear to seek the Grail
        4. Knowing it means Camelot’s end, King Arthur is displeased by these events
        5. Many of his best knights die in the quest, some killing each other
    5. Completion of the Grail Quest — “Performing miracles
      1. Lancelot fathers illegitimate son
        1. Galahad
        2. Conceived while Lancelot was under a spell
        3. That makes Lancelot think Elaine is Guinevere
      2. Galahad alone
        1. Free of sin and weakness
        2. Qualified to complete the Holy Grail quest
        3. Does so and then dies
      3. Sir Perceval
        1. The original Grail knight in earlier texts
        2. And Sir Bors
        3. Accompany Galahad on Grail quest
      4. Galahad alone experiences a final holy vision as he reaches the Grail
  6. Endings
    1. Betrayal: Guinevere, Lancelot, Rome, Mordred, and the Battle of Camlann — “Another, dark and treacherous, is bent on his death
      1. Abductions of Queen Guinevere
      2. Sir Lancelot’s and Queen Guinevere’s Discovery
        1. King Arthur discovers Lancelot’s and Guinevere’s love affair
          1. Arrests Guinevere
          2. Condems Guinevere to death
        2. Lancelot flees, but returns to rescue Guinevere
        3. During the ensuing battle
          1. Brothers of Gawain are killed by Lancelot
          2. Gawain and Lancelot then become enemies
          3. Arthur and Lancelot also become enemies
      3. Letter from Rome
        1. Romans demand tribute from King Arthur
        2. Romans plan to attack Arthur
          1. King Arthur fights the Romans
          2. He defeats them
      4. Prince Mordred
        1. Illegitimate son/nephew of King Arthur who attempts to usurp the throne
        2. Mordred buys the allegiance of Arthur’s barons
        3. Mordred either marries or attempts to marry Queen Guinevere by lying of Arthur’s death
        4. King Arthur learns of Mordred’s treason and returns to reclaim his rights
      5. Battle of Camlann
        1. During the great Salisbury Plain battle, many knights die
        2. Arthur kills Prince Mordred (who grievously mortally wounds King Arthur)
    2. Arthur’s Last Request, the Isle of Avalon, and other Endings
      1. King Arthur’s Last Request — “One of who, less quick to learn than the rest, is given charge and becomes the model of the lay community
        1. King Arthur orders one of his knights (Sir Bedivere or Sir Girflet/Griflet)
          1. To throw Excalibur
          2. Into a lake
        2. Twice his order is disobeyed
        3. On the third time
          1. Excalibur is thrown
          2. A hand
            • Rises from the water
            • Grasps the sword
            • Then disappears
      2. The Isle of Avalon
        1. King Arthur either
          1. Dies and is buried
          2. Or a boat (of women, usually including Arthur’s half-sister Morgan le Fay)
            • Takes Arthur away
            • To the Island of Avalon
        2. In most stories
          1. King Arthur is gravely wounded
          2. But does not die (he becomes immortal)
          3. His wounds will be healed
            • So he can return when Britain needs him
            • To subdue enemies
            • And once again bring peace and security to the land
      3. Other Endings
  7. Arthur’s Association with Related Physical Objects/Locations
    1. Floating Altar
    2. Arthur’s Seat
    3. Arthur’s Oven
    4. Arthur’s Bed-chamber
  8. Appendices: Geography, Genealogy, and Timeline
    1. Geography of Arthur
    2. Genealogy of Arthur
    3. Timeline of Arthur

“There is more of Rome*, than of Romance, about Arthuriana”Glyn Hnutu-healh
 
*and Achaea, Akkad, Alans, Anglia, Arameans, Armorica, Assyria, Babylon, Briton, Cambria, Canaan, Cornwall, Crete, Cumbria, Dalriada, Domnonia, Egypt,
Etruscans, ExtraTerrestrials, France, Frisia, Gaul, Greece, Hindavi, Hittites, Huns, Hurrians, Idubor, Ireland, Judaea, Jutland, Lydia, Macedonia,
Mesopotamia, Mycenaea, Narts, Norse, Persia, Phoenicia, Phrygia, Picts, Saxony, Scotland, Semites, Sumer, Ugarit, and Wales — to name a few

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