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Excalibur, Sword of Logres

  1. Introduction to Excalibur, Sword of Logres
  2. Meaning, Origin, Existence, and Comparison: The Name Excalibur, Multiple Excaliburs, and Other Swords and Weapons
    1. Introduction to the Meaning, Origin, Existence, and Comparison: The Name Excalibur, Multiple Excaliburs, and Other Swords and Weapons
    2. Meaning and Origin of the Name Excalibur
    3. Existence of Multiple Excaliburs
      1. Introduction to the Existence of Multiple Excaliburs
      2. Caladcholg/Caledbolg/(In) Calad(-)bolg/caladbuilc
      3. Caladfwlch/Caledfwlch/Caledvwlch/Caladvwlch/Calwdvwlch/Calesvol/Caladviolch/Kaledvoulc’h/Kaledvoul’ch
      4. C(h)alabrum/Cal(l)ib(o)urc/C(h)alabrun/Caleburn/Caliburn(i)(us)
      5. Calibo(u)r(n)e/Callibo(u)r(c)(h)/Escalibor(c)/Esicalibur/Esecalibur/Escalibur/Excalibor/Excalibar/Excalibur
    4. Other Swords and Weapons, Comparison with and in Addition to Excalibur
      1. Introduction to Other Swords and Weapons
      2. Swords
        1. Great Glaive of the Mighty Enchanter
          1. Uther Pendragon
          2. Arthur
        2. Sword in the Stone
          1. (Uther Pendragon)
          2. Merlin
          3. Arthur
        3. Sword of Attila/Sword of Mars/Sword of the War God
        4. Clarent
          1. (Merlin)
          2. Arthur
          3. Mordred
        5. Mirandoise/Marmiadoise/Marmyadose
          1. Hercules
          2. King Rions/Ryons
          3. Arthur
        6. Brownsteel
        7. Chastiefol
        8. Galatine
        9. Seure/Sequence/Secace
        10. Arondight
        11. Tanlladwyr
        12. Coreiseuse
        13. Curtana/Cortaine/Cortana
          1. Sword of Mercy
          2. Tristan
          3. Charlemagne
          4. (Ogier the Dane)/(Olgerus, dux Daniae)/(Olger, War-Leader of the Danes)
        14. Sword of the Strange Sheath/Hangings
          1. King David of Israel
          2. Perceval
          3. Galahad
        15. Sword with the Red Hilt
          1. Balin
          2. Galahad
        16. Broken Sword
          1. Saracen seneschal Elyezer
          2. Bors
        17. Dyrnwyn, gleddyf Rhydderch Hael
          1. White-Hilt
          2. Sword of Rhydderch the Generous
        18. Claíomh Solais
          1. “Sword of Light”
          2. “Shining Sword”
        19. Gram(r)/Balmung/Nothung
          1. Odin
          2. Sigmund
        20. Durandal/Durendal/Durindana
          1. Helmont
          2. Roland
        21. Joyeuse/Joiuse/Joyous Gard
        22. Halteclere/Hauteclaire/Hauteclere
        23. Almace/Almice/Almacia
        24. Floberge/Flamberge
        25. Margleis
        26. Preciuse
        27. Egeking
        28. Kusanagi
        29. Thuân Thiên
        30. Tizón/Tizona and Colada
        31. Zulfiqar
        32. Sword of Laban
        33. Misteltein(n)/Mistilteinn/Mystletainn
        34. Tyrfing/Tirfing/Tyrving
      3. Other Weapons
        1. Knife/Dagger — Carnwennan
        2. Spear/Lance
          1. Rhongomyniad/Rhongomyant/Rhongowennan/Ron
          2. Maltet
        3. Ship/Shield — Prydwen/Pridwen/Pridwenn/Prytwenn
        4. Shield
          1. Wynebgwrthucher
          2. Shield (Judas Maccabee, then Gawain)
          3. Shield (Joseph of Arimathea, Maiden of the Cart, then Perlesvaus/Perceval)
          4. Shield (Evalach/Mordrain, Sheild’s Guardian, then Galahad)
        5. Bow — Fail-not/Unfailing Bow
        6. Mace — Sharur
        7. Hammer — Mjölnir
          1. Odin
          2. Thor
  3. Beginnings
    1. “Excalibur” was forged
      1. Isle of Avalon
      2. Otherworld
      3. Mt Aetna
      4. Anatolia — the Chalybes
    2. “Sword of Priam”
    3. “Sword of Aeneas”
    4. “Sword of Rex Nemorensis”
    5. Sword of Fergus mac Roich
    6. Sword of Cú Chulainn
    7. Sword(s) of Gaius Iulius Caesar
      1. Crocea Mors — Yellow Death
      2. Angau Coch — Red Death
      3. Angau Glas — Grey Death
    8. Sword of Prince Nennius of Briton
    9. Sword of Tiberius Claudius Nero (as a Gladius)
    10. Sword of Magnus Maximus/Maxen Wledig (as an Early Byzantine blade)
    11. Passed to the Lady of the Lake
    12. “Sword in the Stone” (Sword of Mars/Sword of the War God/Sword of Attila) is broken in battle
    13. Excalibur is bestowed upon Arthur
      1. By a “sorcerous damosel”
      2. By the Lady of the Lake (who also bestows Excalibur’s valueable scabbard)
        1. Sometime after Arthur began his reign
        2. Scabbard protects wounded possessor of it from dying (due to blood loss)
        3. The Lady of the Lake may have had Saxon connections of some kind
          1. Politically
          2. Genealogically
          3. Both
    14. Description and Attributes of Excalibur
      1. The descriptions of Excalibur fit variations of the Spatha, a sword used by the Romans
        1. Exhibited a herringbone or curved pattern on each side of the blade
        2. Longer than a traditional Spatha to allow for fighting from horseback
        3. Double edged, resembling a longsword
        4. With a fuller (groove) running most of the length
        5. Probably inscribed by the swordsmith (an “elfan” or “fairy” smith)
          1. Merlin
          2. Wayland/Weland
          3. Goibniu/Gofannon
          4. Hephaestos/Vulcan(us)
        6. With a design of two chimeras (or serpents/snakes) on the golden hilt
          1. Chimera — a fire-breathing female monster with a lion’s head, goat’s body, and serpent’s tail
          2. Serpent/Snake is the same design as that of an auxilium unit of the Roman army that was based at Segontium/Caer Seint/Caernarvon
      2. When the sword was unsheathed (drawn), its blade glowed white-blue (as ice that was hot)
        1. From the mouths of the two chimeras (or serpents/snakes) was like two flames of fire
        2. Was so bright in Arthur’s enemies’ eyes
        3. It gave a light like thirty torches
        4. So dreadful that it was not easy for anyone to look
      3. No armor could withstand it (monatomic or monomolecular blade edge)
      4. Excalibur instantly kills anyone it touches
      5. Possesses a kind of oracular magic — Gazing into the sword enabled Arthur to give every questioner an answer
  4. In Arthur’s care
    1. He draws against the Wild Beasts of the Forest
    2. With this weapon, Arthur vanquished many foes
    3. Against the Saxons, the sword Caliburnus (Excalibur) is used in the Battle of Badon
    4. He occasionally entrusted “Excalibur” to Others
      1. Llenlleawg Wyddel
      2. Gawain
      3. Lancelot
      4. Meliadus
      5. Morgan le Fay
        1. She made a counterfeit sword
        2. Gave the real one to her lover, Accalon
        3. Returned the copy to Arthur
        4. She keeps the scabbard
  5. Endings
    1. After the final battle with Mordred
      1. Arthur commands one of his knights to throw “Excalibur” into a nearby lake
        1. Girflet/Griflet/Gifflet in the Vulgate and Post-Vulgate
        2. Bedwyr/Bedivere in the Stanzaic Morte Arthur and Malory
        3. Gawain(e) in the Middle English Parlement of the Thre Ages
        4. Lucan in the English ballad King Arthurs Death
        5. a nameless squire in La Tavola Ritonda
      2. A mysterious hand rises from the water and seizes the sword, drawing it under
      3. Excalibur is probably retrieved by a water fairy (perhaps the Lady of the Lake herself)
    2. Cadwr (Cado/Cador/Cadorius), Earl of Cornwall, rose with Arthur’s (his half-brother’s) sword
    3. Constantine III (Custennin, son of Cadwr), who was the nephew of Arthur, had the sword Caliburc (Excalibur)
    4. In AD 1191, King Richard the Lionheart
      1. Presented “Caliburn(us)” to his ally, Tancred of Lecce (King of Sicily)
      2. Sword was ‘discovered’ during the exhumation of Arthur’s body at Glastonbury
    5. In AD 1215, “Excalibur” was in the Royal Regalia lost by King John
      1. When his treasure wagon overturned at The Wash
      2. Whilst he was attempting to avoid the barons
    6. By the early Thirteenth Century AD,
      1. (Ex)calibur(n) had been passed down to Tancred’s successors
      2. Until it reached Frederick II, the Holy Roman Emperor
    7. In AD 1229,
      1. Frederick II presented (Ex)calibur(n)
      2. To Peter of Koroneou
    8. By AD 1260,
      1. Peter had broken the sword
      2. In battle
  6. Appendices: Geography, Genealogy, and Timeline
    1. Geography of Excalibur
    2. Genealogy of Excalibur
    3. Timeline of Excalibur

“There is more of Rome, than of Romance, about Arthuriana”Glyn Hnutu-healh

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