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Sir Gawain, Bravest Knight
of the Five-Pointed Star of Logres

None of the line items that are included in the following outline are meant to be links.
The outline itself represents the material that is to be covered in the upcoming book known by the above title (available after January 2024).

  1. Introduction to Sir Gawain, Bravest Knight of the Five-Pointed Star of Logres
  2. Meaning, Origin, Existence, and Comparison: Gawain’s Name, Other Gawains, and Other Similar Knights/Warriors/Rescuers/Heroes/Gods
    1. Introduction to Meaning, Origin, Existence, and Comparison: Gawain’s Name, Other Gawains, and Other Similar Knights/Warriors/Rescuers/Heroes/Gods
    2. Meaning and Origin of Gawain’s Name
      1. Introduction to the Meaning and Origin of Gawain’s Name
      2. Gwalchmai/Gwalchmei/(hawk of May)/(hawk of the plain)/(ualcos magesos)
      3. Gwrvan
        1. Gwallt-avwy/Gwallt-avwyn/(hair like rain)
        2. Gwallt-afwyn/(wild hair)
        3. Gwrfangwallt-advwyn/(fair hair)
      4. Balbhuaidh
      5. Keu
      6. Calliano/C(h)alvano
      7. Gaoulbanos/Galvagin(us)/G(u)alwa(i)nus/Gualgua(i)nus
      8. Ga(u)gains/Gaua(i)net/Gauveis/Gavaon/Gavion/Gowin/Grion
      9. Valven/Walgan/Walga(i)(n)nus/Waluuanii/Walwa(i)n(n)(us)
      10. Walwe/(lion)/Wal(e)w(e)(i)n/Wa(l)wa(i)n/Wa(l)wayne
        1. From the Breton
        2. Walcmoei
      11. Ga(u)vain(s)/Gauwain/Gayain/Gauain(e)/Gauains/Gauein/Gauuain/Gauvei(n)/Gaven
      12. Galvan/Galwan/Gaw(a)yn(e)/Gaw(e)(i)n/Ga(u)wa(i)n(e)/Gawa(i)n(s)
      13. ‘Boy With No Name’
      14. ‘The Knight of the Surcoat’
      15. ‘The Knight of Maidens’/‘The Maidens’ Knight’/(a defender of women)
    3. Existence of Other Gawains
      1. (Gawain the Brown)/(Gauvain le Brun)/Galobrun
        1. The first foster-father of Gawain
        2. Entrusted with the child by Morgause and Lot
        3. Baptised Gawain
        4. Person after which Gawain was named
        5. Became Gawain’s Godfather
      2. Gawain(e)/Gauvaine the Hermit
        1. Saintly
        2. Baptised Gawain
        3. Person after which Gawain was named
        4. Became Gawain’s Godfather
    4. Comparison of Other Similar Knights/Warriors/Rescuers/Heroes/Gods to Gawain
      1. Gyges/Gugu
        1. Adopted son of Ardus
        2. King of Lydia/Akkad
        3. Flourished 668/665 BC
        4. Died c 645 BC
      2. Gauanes
        1. Descendant of Temenos I
        2. Son of Temenos II
      3. Gaevani/Gevan/Vevan/Giv/Giw
        1. Persian (pre-Islamic)
        2. Before Alexander the Great
      4. A Sun God
        1. Modern scholars seem satisfied that Gawain was originally a Solar God
        2. The romancers are agreed on the facts of Gawain’s strength
          1. Always doubling at noon
          2. Being renewed at noon
        3. In Malory, Sir Gawain such a grace and gift that a holy man had given to him
          1. Every day in the year, from 9:00am till high noon, his might increased
          2. Those three hours as much as thrice his strength
          3. For his sake King Arthur made an ordinance
            • All manner of battles for any quarrels
            • That should be done for King Arthur would begin by 9:00am
        4. The Vulgate gives a more Christian explanation
          1. Alluded to by Malory
          2. The hermit who baptised Gawain and for whom the child was named
          3. Prayed for a special grace as a gift to the infant
          4. Was granted that Gawain’s strength and vigor always be fully restored by noon
          5. For this reason
            • Many knights would not fight him until afternoon
            • When his strength returned to normal
          6. Sometimes
            • The reason for Gawain’s noon strength
            • Is described as being kept a secret
            • That fact must have become obvious early in Gawain’s career
          7. Nor was Gawain the only knight to enjoy such an advantage
            • Ironside’s strength also increased daily until noon
            • Marhaus’ appears to have increased in the evening
      5. (Cú Chulainn)/(Cú Chulaind)/Cúchulain(n)/Cuhullin, son of Lugh and Deichtine (wife of Sualtam mac Róich)
      6. Gwalchmei/Gwalchmai/(hawk of May)/(hawk of the plain)/(ualcos magesos)
      7. Uallabh
      8. Carduino
  3. Beginnings
    1. Introduction to Beginnings
    2. Dual Characteristics
      1. The pearl of worldly knighthood — the epitome of chivalric virtue
        1. Before his place was usurped by Lancelot
          1. Gawain was considered the greatest of all the knights
          2. A mighty champion
          3. The epitome both of prowess and courtesy
          4. Touchstone against whom all others must prove themselves
        2. A noble knight — a real hero
          1. Position of respect and dignity
          2. Praises the virtues of chivalry
          3. Functions as counselor
          4. Putative heir to the throne
          5. Unimpeachably courteous and valiant
          6. Model whom young knights aspired to emulate
          7. Blindly adhering to custom
        3. Valiant warrior — ‘the father of adventures’
          1. Quick with a sword (Excalibur)
          2. Aids his lord and king in various campaigns
        4. Courtly
          1. A friend of the hero
            • The hero becomes involved in a combat with Gawain
              • Undecided outcome
              • The hero is the moral victor
            • Gawain is unfavorably contrasted
              • With the hero
              • Via the butt of burlesque humour
          2. A somewhat comic figure
          3. Praises the virtues of love
      2. A brash bully — a truly wicked man
        1. An out-and-out murderous villain
          1. Murders knights
          2. During the Grail Quest
        2. No respecter of persons or property
        3. Debased and debauched knight
          1. Quick with the maidens
          2. Frivolous attachment to the opposite sex
        4. Sinner (Christianised elaboration)
          1. Hardened
          2. Unrepentant
          3. Considered evil
        5. Contributes to Britain’s downfall
          1. By egging Arthur into a war
          2. With Lancelot
    3. Family
      1. Introduction to Family
      2. Father
        1. Lleu
        2. King Lot of Orkney and Lothian
        3. Jascaphin (in Diu Crône)
        4. Gwyar
        5. King Arthur
      3. Mother
        1. Gwyar
          1. Gore/(spilled blood)/bloodshed
          2. Daughter of Amlawdd Wledig
        2. Anna — Arthur’s sister
        3. Arthur’s half-sister
          1. (M)orc(h)ades
          2. Sangive
          3. Seife(/Anthonje)
          4. Belisent
          5. Albagia
          6. Margawse/Morgawse/Morgause
        4. (never Morgan le Fay)
      4. Uncle — King Arthur
      5. Aunt
        1. Queen Guinevere
        2. Elaine of Tintagel
        3. Morgan le Fay
      6. Brothers
        1. Agravain(e)
        2. Gaheri(e)s/Gaharret/Gaheriet(/Aguerisse)
        3. Gareth/Guerrethet(/Aguerisse)
        4. Beacurs
        5. Gwidon
      7. (Half-)Brother — Mo(r)dred/Medrawt
      8. Sisters
        1. “Alteria”
          1. In Yvain, Chrétien tells us of her as a sister of Gawain
          2. Whom Phyllis Ann Karr calls for convenience “Alteria”
        2. Clarissant
        3. Cundrie
        4. Elaine
        5. Itonje
        6. Soredamors
        7. Thenew(?)
      9. Cousins
        1. Ywain(e) (by Morgan)
        2. Galeshin (by Elaine)
        3. Edward of Orkney
        4. Sadok
      10. Wives, Paramours/Lovers, and Flirtations
        1. Introduction to Wives, Paramours/Lovers, and Flirtations
        2. The Queen of the Otherworld
        3. The Princess of the Otherworld
        4. Lorie the Fay
        5. Venelas
        6. The Lady of the Deadly Bed
        7. Ydain
        8. Blanc(h)emal
          1. The Fa(ir)y
          2. Mother of Guinglain
        9. Lunet(te)/Luneta/(E)luned
        10. Lady Duchess Org(u)el(le)us(e) of Logres
        11. Guilorete of Lis
          1. Daughter of Norrois of Lis
          2. Sister of Sir Brandiles/Brandelis
          3. Mother of Lionel
          4. Mother of Florence and Lovel(l)
        12. Tanrée — sister of the Little Knight
        13. The Lady of Beloe/Bel(l)oé
        14. Flori(e)
          1. Princess of Syria
          2. Mother of
            • Wigalois
            • Florence
            • Lovel(l)
        15. Beauté/Bia(u)té(s)/Biautéz/Bialtés/Belté(s)/Beltéz/Beatue/(Beautiful Giantess)
        16. (Helaés of Limos)/(Helaes (de la Forest Perilleuse)/(the Beautiful))/Hellawes
          1. Sister of Clapor le Riche
          2. Niece of (Meleager le Rous)/(Meleagar the Red)
        17. Lore de/of Branlant/Brulent, the Maiden of the Narrow Wood
        18. Florée/Floree
          1. Daughter of King Alain of Escavalon
          2. Mother of Guinglain
          3. Mother of Florence and Lovel(l)(?)
        19. The Lady of Roestoc
        20. The sister of Helain de Taningues
        21. The daughter of King Coudel of Norgales/Northgalis/(North Wales)
        22. Amurfine/Amurfina
          1. Daughter of Lord Laniure of Serre and Ansgien
          2. Sister of Sgoidamu
        23. Bloi(e)sine
          1. Daughter of Urbin/Urpin/Harpin of the (Red) Mountain
          2. Sister of Brun
        24. Arcade/Ettar(r)e/Ettard/Etnard
        25. Guenloie, daughter of King Amangon of Greenland
        26. The Maiden of the Castle of the Door
        27. (Pulzella Gaia)/(Gaia Donzella)/(Gaia Pulcella)/(merry maiden)/(cheerful damsel) — daughter of Morgan le Fay
        28. Amie
          1. Daughter of the King of Wales
          2. Mother of Beaudo(u)s
        29. Ysabel(l)e, daughter of King Assentin
        30. Princess Blanchandine of Hungary
        31. The daughter of Avartach(, the King) of Sorcha
        32. The daughter of the Carl of Carlisle
        33. Dame Ragnell(e)
          1. Sister of Gromer Somer Joure
          2. Mother of Guinglain
      11. Special case — The Maid with Little Sleeves
      12. Sons
        1. Introduction to Sons
        2. Guinglain/Wigalois/Beaudous/(Le Bel Inconnu)
          1. Sir Guinglain/Gi(n)g(a)l(a)in/Gyngalyn/Gyngelayne/Gyngolyn/G(a)ynleyn/Geynleyn
            • (Libeaus Desconus)/(Le Bel Inconnu)/(The Fair Unknown)
            • Mother was
              • Blanc(h)emal the Fa(ir)y
              • Florée/Floree, daughter of King Alain of Escavalon
              • Dame Ragnell(e), the sister of Gromer Somer Joure
          2. Sir Wigalois/Wigoleis/Viegloeis/Vigoles(/Wizalois) — Mother was Princess Flori(e) of Syria
          3. Sir Beaudo(u)s/Biausdous — Mother was Amie, daughter of the King of Wales
        3. Sir Lionel/Lioniaus — Mother was Guilorete of Lis
        4. Sir Florence
          1. Mother was Guilorete of Lis, daughter of Norrois of Lis
          2. Mother was Florée/Floree, daughter of King Alain of Escavalon
        5. Sir Lovel(l)
          1. Mother was Guilorete of Lis, daughter of Norrois of Lis
          2. Mother was Florée/Floree, daughter of King Alain of Escavalon
        6. Sir Henec Suctellois
        7. Sir Perceval
      13. Father-in-law — King Alain of Escavalon
      14. Brothers-in-law
        1. Sir Brandiles/Brandelis
        2. Sir Gringamore (by the marriages of Gaheris and Gareth)
        3. Alexander of Greece (by the marriage of Soredamors)
        4. Unnamned husband of “Alteria”
      15. Sisters-in-law
        1. Laurel (married Agravaine)
        2. Lynette (married Gaheris)
        3. Lyonors (married Gareth)
      16. Nephews
        1. Melehan
        2. Cligès
        3. “Alteria’s” six sons
        4. Saint Kentigern(?)
        5. Ider(?)
      17. Niece — “Alteria’s” daughter
      18. Squires
        1. Eliezer
        2. Gliglois
      19. Ally — Lady of Briestoc
      20. Charger (Horse) — Keincaled/Gringolet
    4. Conception
      1. Illegitimate
      2. Legitimate
    5. Birth
      1. Gawain gets his name
        1. From
          1. (Gawain the Brown)/(Gauvain le Brun)/Galobrun
          2. Gawain(e)/Gauvaine the Hermit
        2. Who baptised him
        3. Became the boy’s Godfather
      2. Through intercessions, the Saintly Gawain(e)/Gauvaine the Hermit
        1. Gave the newborn Gawain the ability to
        2. No matter how wounded he was after a battle
        3. Gawain healed and got his strength back in time for dinner
      3. (The boy Gawain was then set adrift in a cask)
      4. With only a ring and parchment attesting to his lineage
        1. The infant Gawain was handed to some wealthy merchants
        2. Rescued by fishermen
        3. Who took him to Gaul
      5. Leaving him alone on their ship
        1. The wealthy merchants (or fishermen) docked
        2. They entered the town of Narbonne
      6. A poor fisherman named Viamundus
        1. Happened along
        2. Plundered the ship
        3. Took Gawain with him
      7. Gawain eventually found his way to Rome
    6. Childhood and Adolescence
      1. Gawain’s father joins a rebellion against Arthur shortly after Arthur is first crowned
      2. During the time of Arthur’s conquests
        1. Gawain is raised in Rome
        2. Knighted in the service of
          1. The Roman Emperor
          2. Pope Sulpicius
            • Bishop Sulpicius/Sulpice/Pius of Bourges
              • Born late 6th Century AD
              • Flourished early 7th Century AD
            • Pope Pius I — reigned c AD 140/142/146 to 154/157/161
        3. Knighted later in King Arthur’s Court
        4. Ignorant of his parentage and true name, Gawain was called
          1. The ‘Boy With No Name’
          2. Then the ‘Knight of the Surcoat’
        5. Having been knighted by the Emperor of Rome
          1. Gawain claimed the right to the next single combat against Rome’s enemies
          2. Was accordingly sent to Jerusalem when Rome went to war with Persia
        6. On the way
          1. The Roman fleet was blown off course
          2. Landed on a barbarian island
            • Where Gawain and the Romans
            • Defeated the barbarian King Milocrates
        7. Continuing to Jerusalem
          1. Gawain defeated the Persian warrior Gormundus
          2. Settling the dispute
      3. As a young man, Gawain
        1. Hears that Arthur is his uncle
        2. Gawain leaves his father’s household
        3. He swears never to return until Lot submits to Arthur
  4. Adulthood
    1. Introduction to Adulthood
    2. Three Gawain stories describing his first meeting with Arthur
      1. Having thus served Rome, Gawain returned to Britain
        1. The Roman Emperor gave Gawain a box
          1. Containing the ring and parchment
          2. Which he was to present to King Arthur
          3. Without opening it himself
        2. After Gawain defeated Arthur in a joust near his court in Caerleon
          1. Arthur begrudgingly told Gawain that he could join his court
          2. If he proved himself worthy
        3. Gawain soon had the chance to prove his worth
          1. Arthur set out to liberate the Castle of Maidens
          2. Gawain proved himself the only knight able
            • To defeat the pagan king
            • Who had captured it
        4. Following this service
          1. Arthur rewarded Gawain by informing him of his name and lineage
          2. By welcoming him into his service as his knight and nephew
      2. Joined by his brothers and cousins, Galescalain/Galeshin and the Yvains
        1. Gawain goes to seek out Arthur
          1. Who is embroiled in a war
          2. Against the invading Saxons
        2. Along with the war, Gawain and his companions encounter forces of Saxons
          1. Which they defeat at the battles of Logres and Diana Bridge
            • Battle of Logres
            • Battle of Diana Bridge
          2. Merlin assists Gawain in these fights
        3. Eventually, Gawain and his companions
          1. Find Arthur
          2. Are knighted for their brave service
        4. Arthur gives Gawain Excalibur when he receives a better sword
          1. The Vulgate tells us that Arthur made him constable of his household
          2. Arthur gave Excalibur to Gawain for use throughout his life
        5. For a time
          1. As Arthur’s next of kin and favorite nephew
          2. Gawain was named to be his successor
      3. Gawain at Arthur’s Court
        1. He first came to Arthur’s court
          1. With his mother and three full brothers
          2. Between the petty British kings’ two early rebellions against Arthur
        2. Gawain returned to Arthur’s Court
          1. About the time of Arthur’s marriage
          2. The establishment of the Round Table
        3. At Arthur’s wedding feast, Gawain was sent
          1. By Merlin’s advice
          2. On the quest of the white hart, Gawain accidentally slew a lady
            • Who rushed between him and her lord
            • Whom he had just defeated in battle
            • Was about to behead
            • For this his brother Gaheris
              • Then acting as his squire
              • Rebuked him severely
              • Guinevere ordained that Gawain should
                • for ever while he lived...
                    be with all ladies, and...
                    fight for their quarrels.
        4. When kings of Denmark, Ireland, Vale, Soleise, & Longtains invaded Britain
          1. Gawain, Griflet, and Arthur followed Kay’s example
            • To strike them down
            • To save the battle
          2. After this campaign, Gawain was
            • Elevated to the Round Table
            • On King Pellinore’s advice
    3. Gawain had become one of Arthur’s warriors
      1. Does the adult Gawain then also become Morgan le Fay’s knight?
      2. Does he exclusively become Morgan’s knight?
      3. In her earliest incarnations, Gawain’s love is
        1. The Queen of the Otherworld
        2. The Princess of the Otherworld
    4. The Shield of Sir Gawain and the Meanings of the Pentangle (five-pointed star)
      1. The Pentangle (five-pointed star)
        1. Sir Gawain adopted it as his coat of arms on his shield
        2. Gold on a red background
          1. Can be interpreted several different ways
          2. Depending on the context
      2. When they brought him his shield
        1. It was bright red tincture
        2. Painted with a Pentangle of purest gold
      3. Holding the baldric
        1. Gawain hung it from his neck
        2. This sign suited him well
      4. Why the Pentangle is proper for that noble prince
        1. It is a sign, an emblem, that Solomon set long ago to signify truth and fidelity by a trustworthy token
        2. A talisman of strength and protection
      5. It is a figure with five fine points and each line overlaps and locks with the others, everywhere endless
        1. Most often it is called the Endless Knot
        2. A Symbol of Faithfulness
      6. So it fits this knight with his flashing armor
        1. Who was faithful five ways
        2. Five times each
      7. All knew Gawain to be good as purified gold
        1. Devoid of villainy
        2. His virtues were a court’s delight embodied as a “moral representative” of Arthur’s Court
      8. Thus he wore the five-pointed star on shield and surcoat in plain sight
        1. His honour without stain or scar
        2. A gentle, low-voiced knight
      9. On shield and coat in view, he bore that emblem bright
        1. The five-pointed star dressed the front of his shield and the arm of his coat
        2. He held high regard for its symbolism and meaning
        3. It can symbolise the Star of Bethlehem. (Christianised elaboration)
      10. Gawain was reputedly considered one of the most noble and virtuous knights, and embodies the chivalric tradition of the time
        1. Therefore the Pentangle suits this knight and his shining arms
        2. For always faithful in five ways, and five times in each case
          1. First, he was found faultless in the perfection of his five senses
          2. Secondly, his dexterous five fingers never failed him in any deed
          3. All his faith and devotion in this world was in the five wounds that Christ carried on the cross, as the Creed informs us (Christianised elaboration)
          4. Fourth, no matter where he moved in melee or in battle it was his fervent thought through thick or thin that when he fought
            • His courage came from reflection on the five joys that the Queen of Heaven, Mother Mary, had of her child (Christianised elaboration)
              • Annunciation
              • Nativity
              • Resurrection
              • Ascension
              • Assumption
            • So the noble knight would never wear his shield till her image had been painted on the inner half (Christianised elaboration)
              • For when he saw her face
              • His courage never failed
            • For Gawain is specifically a Knight of the Blessed Virgin, and a Knight of the Church. (Christianised elaboration)
          5. A fifth five was found in Gawain
            • Bounty and Brotherhood above all else
            • Courtesy and a Clean Heart (these were never crooked)
            • The finest point, Compassion
            • These five virtues marked him more than any man alive, in other words, the five virtues of knighthood
              • Generosity
              • Courtesy
              • Chastity
              • Chivalry and Piety (some say Fellowship/Friendship and Charity; or Brotherly Love and Compassion)
      11. Now all these five fives were fastened around this knight
        1. Each embraced the others in unbroken pattern
        2. They met in five fixed points that never failed
          1. Nor bunched together
          2. Nor split in pieces
          3. But ran on endlessly at every point
          4. Where the figure began to fail, it found new beginnings
      12. Each of the five sides of the Pentangle transitions seamlessly into the next
        1. This aspect of its geometry represents the way in which the virtues are interrelated
        2. Each area feeding into and supporting the other
      13. Therefore the shield shone with the knot thus shaped
        1. Gold royally arranged against red tincture
        2. The Noble Pentangle as it is known from days of yore
    5. In early romance
      1. Gawain is the Greatest of Arthur’s knights — a Mighty Champion
      2. In Chrétien de Troyes’ Érec et Énide (Erec and Enide)
        1. Gawain is one of his uncle Arthur’s most prudent counselors
        2. Is first of all Arthur’s good knights in the roll call beginning at line 1691
      3. Gawain acts
        1. As a mentor to young warriors
        2. A yardstick by which to measure the prowess of other knights
      4. A young knight
        1. Would first arrive at Arthur’s court
        2. Enter a tournament or joust to prove his prowess
        3. Overthrow most of the Knights of the Round Table
          1. But not Gawain
          2. Who fights the young knight to a draw
      5. The skill of the young knight
        1. Is demonstrated
        2. Without having him defeat Arthur’s greatest knight
    6. Gawain was well formed
      1. Medium height
      2. Loved the poor
      3. Loyal to his uncle
      4. Never spoke evil of anyone
      5. A favorite with the ladies
      6. Many of his companions
        1. Would have surpassed him in endurance
        2. If his strength had not doubled at noon
    7. Gawain has superior medical and herbal knowledge
    8. There is a flashback glimpse of him acting as judge or magistrate
      1. Filling in for his royal uncle
      2. Meting out strict justice to uphold Arthur’s laws
      3. Yet incapable of understanding why one so chastised should harbor a grudge against the judge
    9. The poor love him for his generosity
      1. He put his own concerns at risk in order to please a child, the Maid with Little Sleeves
      2. Whom he treats like as courteously as if she were fully grown
    10. Gawain goes to Escavalon
      1. To defend himself against at least one and possibly two charges of murder
      2. Brought by Gui(n)gambresil
      3. Gawain charms the sister of the King of Escavalon
        1. Fight his way out of the situation
        2. When the king’s guards arrive
      4. All such charges refer to men slain in honest battle
        1. Gawain stands ready to defend himself in trial by combat
        2. A similar charge is raised against his cousin Ywain over the death of Esclados the Red
    11. In Perceval, Gawain endures the vicious tongue of the Lady Org(u)el(le)us(e) of Logres
      1. She leads him to the Rock of Canguin
        1. A mysterious castle
        2. Possible outpost of the Otherworld
        3. Inhabited by ladies
          1. Where he meets his grandmother Ygerne
          2. His mother (here unnamed)
          3. A sister
            • Clarissant
            • He never knew he had
        4. Before learning who they are, Gawain answers the old queen’s questions concerning
          1. King Lot’s four sons
            • Without revealing that he is himself the oldest of them
            • Gawain gives the same list we have from later sources
          2. King Uriens’ two Yvains
          3. King Arthur’s health
      2. Gawain braves the Perilous Bed inside the castle
      3. He slays a lion
      4. Gawain ends the castle’s enchantments
    12. As early as Chrétien’s pages, Gawain’s great charger Gringolet is present
      1. Whom later romancers retained
      2. Long after they appeared to have forgotten Gawain’s sisters
    13. In later stories, Gawain is less likable
    14. After Arthur has pacified Britain
      1. Gawain has innumerable adventures
        1. Some a credit to his character
        2. Some shame him
      2. He embarks on several quests to find Lancelot, who always seems to be missing
      3. Gawain defends Roestoc against an attack by Seguarades
      4. He supports the true Guinevere during the False Guinevere (Genievre) episode
      5. Gawain is imprisoned for a time
        1. By Caradoc/Carados of the Dolorous Tower
        2. Is liberated by Lancelot
          1. Who remained Gawain’s friend
          2. Until the end
      6. Gawain becomes king of the Castle of Ten Knights for six years
    15. In Chrétien’s Lancelot
      1. Gawain accompanies his good friend Lancelot
        1. Part of the way on their journey
        2. To King Badegamus’ Gore
      2. When Lancelot rides in the cart for the sake of getting to the queen
        1. Gawain declines the dishonour
        2. Follows along on his horse
      3. Later, when Lancelot insists on sleeping in the forbidden Deadly Bed
        1. Gawain quietly accepts the lesser bed his hostess offers him
        2. He shows greater prudence in the first, and greater modesty in the second
      4. Lancelot’s success in crossing the Sword Bridge & Gawain’s failure crossing the Water Bridge
        1. Can be traced to Lancelot’s riding in the cart
        2. Gawain’s refusal to do so
          1. Would have shown greater courtesy
          2. Greater generosity on Gawain’s part
            • When offered him the choice by his friend
            • To take the Sword Bridge
            • Leave the comparatively less hazardous Water Bridge to Lancelot
      5. Gawain has not, like Lancelot, ridden two horses (one of them borrowed) to death
        1. Left himself without a mount
        2. Therefore in need of the ignominious cart ride
      6. As to the one’s success and the other’s failure to cross the bridges into Gore
        1. If Gore is indeed a branch of the eschatological Otherworld
        2. Lancelot’s desire for Guinevere renders him, in some spiritual sense
          1. Already dead
          2. Tainted beyond redemption
        3. This might make the next world more (or less) accessible to him
          1. Than to the still vital
          2. Generally virtuous Gawain
            • While already displaying amorous tendencies
            • Seems to restrict them to more available ladies
            • For instance, the lively Lunette of Yvain
    16. Chrétien’s last and unfinished romance, Perceval
      1. Gives the fullest view of the author’s approach to Gawain as hero
        1. At about line 4750
        2. The emphasis twists over from Perceval to Gawain
          1. Except in one short episode
          2. Stays there until Chrétien laid down his pen
      2. Here we see several instances of Gawain’s modesty, or prudence, with his name
        1. He never refuses to give it when asked outright
        2. Rarely if ever volunteers it
        3. Sometimes requests those he meets not to ask his identity for a certain period of time
    17. On the cathedral archivolt/archivault in Modena, Italy (c AD 1135)
      1. Gawain appears to rescue Guinevere
      2. From her abductors
        1. Mardoc
        2. Caradoc
    18. In Chrétien de Troyes’ romance, Cligès
      1. Gawain is much impressed by Cligès’ performance
        1. During the first three days of the Oxford tournament
        2. Decides to open the last day’s combat himself
      2. Gawain modestly says that he fully expects to have no better luck than
        1. Sagramore
        2. Lancelot
        3. Perceval
          1. In tilting against the still-unknowing champion
          2. But thinks he may fare better in the sword play
      3. At this stage of the legend nobody has ever beaten Gawain at sword-fighting
      4. When the combat comes
        1. Gawain and Cligès knock each other from their horses
        2. Fight with swords until Arthur calls a halt
          1. While the outcome still remains undecided
          2. Gawain is delighted to learn that he is the young champion’s uncle
          3. His sister Soredamors having married Cligès father Alexander
    19. In a tournament
      1. Gawain champions the little daughter of Duke Tiebaut of Tintagel
      2. Wins the tournament through his skill in arms
    20. Gawain rescues a maiden from Menealf
    21. He avenges the murder of a knight
      1. Named Raguidel
      2. Against Sir Guengasoain
    22. Gawain rescues a maiden kidnapped by Escanor le Beau
    23. In Les Merveilles de Rigomer (The Marvels of Rigomer)
      1. Gawain conquers Rigomer castle
        1. After many of Arthur’s other knights fail
        2. Failed knights include Lancelot
      2. Gawain is rescued
        1. By Lorie the Fay
        2. In Wigalois(/Wizalois) she is known as
          1. Princess Flori(e) of Syria
          2. The mother of Gawain’s sons
            • Wigalois
            • Florence
            • Lovel(l)
        3. In the Vulgate she is known as Florée/Floree
          1. The daughter of King Alain of Escavalon
          2. Mother of Guinglain
    24. Once Gawain fought Gareth unknowingly
      1. But left off at once
      2. When Lynette revealed Gareth’s identity
    25. In Roman van Walewein (Romance of Gawain), Gawain embarks on multiple interlocking quests
      1. The ultimate goal was obtaining the Floating Chessboard from King Wonder
      2. Gawain needed to bring Ysabel(l)e, maiden daughter of King Assentin
      3. To the court of King Amoraen
      4. So that Amoraen would let him keep the magic Sword with Two Rings
      5. Which Gawain needed to trade with King Wonder for the Floating Chessboard
      6. Arriving at Assentin’s court
        1. Assentin imprisoned Gawain
        2. But gave him to Ysabel(l)e for care
        3. Gawain exerted his traditional charm
        4. Assentin eventually caught them in flagrante
        5. He threw them both in prison
        6. They were freed
          1. By the spirit of a dead knight
          2. To whom Gawain had previously given a burial
      7. On the journey to King Wonder’s court
        1. Ysabel(l)e was abducted by Sir Estor (Hector)
        2. Gawain saved her
        3. He may have later married her
    26. Malory seems to insinuate that Gawain was accessory to Gaheris’ murder of their mother
      1. Though Sir Gawain was wroth that Gaheris had slain his mother
      2. Gawain let Sir Lamorak, his mother’s lover, escape
    27. Gawain was with his brothers Agravain(e), Gaheris, and Mordred
      1. When they later ambushed and killed Morgause’s lover, Lamorak
      2. For which Gawain seems to have lost Tristan’s goodwill
    28. Gawain ruled Galloway, which was apparently named after him
    29. He defeats Lord Galleron of Galloway in a battle before Arthur
    30. The Beheading Game in Sir Gawayne and the Greene Knight
      1. It has a parallel in Irish mythology
        1. Cu Roi, King of Munster, proclaimed Cú Chullain champion of Ireland
        2. The decision was rejected by two other champions
          1. Cu Roi arrived in the guise of a giant
          2. At Emhain Macha (modern Navan Fort)
          3. Where the King of Ulster had his court
          4. Challenged each of the three to behead him
          5. On condition that he could afterwards do the same to them
          6. Each of Cú Chullain’s rivals tried
            • When the head was sliced off
            • Cu Roi replaced it
            • Neither of them would let the other have his turn
        3. When Cú Chullain cut off Cu Roi’s head
          1. Once again the latter replaced it on his shoulders
          2. Cú Chullain was prepared to let him strike him as agreed
          3. Whereupon Cu Roi disclosed who he was
          4. Declared Cú Chullain unrivalled champion
      2. The similarity of these tales may indicate a common source
        1. Perhaps Gawain is identical in origin with Cú Chullain
        2. The tales about him may be indigenous to the north of England
        3. In ancient times, present day northwest England contained a tribe called the Setantii
          1. The original name of Cú Chullain was Sétanta
          2. It may well have been that Cú Chullain was a Setantii hero
            • With a reputation on both sides of the Irish Sea
            • Whose memory was kept alive under the name of Gawain
            • By the medieval descendants of the Setantii in what is now England
      3. Gawain’s Beheading Game tale begins during Arthur’s Christmas Feast
        1. Festivities were interrupted
        2. By the arrival of a supernatural Green Knight
          1. Who callenged the knights present to cut off his head
          2. Setting as the only condition
          3. He be allowed to retaliate in the same manner the following year
        3. Only Gawain dared accept the challenge
        4. Gawain demonstrates virtue at the hands of the Green Knight
      4. This Gawain is certainly an idealistic young knight
        1. Very nearly as worthy, pure, and polite as any mortal can be
        2. Critical opinion is divided as to whether these sexual mores of this Gawain
          1. Reflect the general character of the Gawaine of other early romances
          2. Are a conscious deviation from the tradition on the part of an individual author
          3. Even have anything to do with his behaviour toward Sir Bercilak’s wife
            • Whom he refuses
            • Through refusal to betray his host’s hospitality
    31. In the Vulgate
      1. Gawaine is definitely second only to his close friend Lancelot
        1. As the greatest knight of the world
        2. Excluding spiritual knights like Galahad
      2. In this version, Gawaine comes across as much steadier and more dependable than Lancelot
        1. Much less prone than Lancelot to fits of madness
        2. Berserk lust in battle
        3. Going off on incognito adventures without telling the court in advance
        4. Settling down uninvited
          1. In somebody else’s pavilion
          2. Killing the owner upon his return
    32. At the time of Galahad’s arrival in Camelot
      1. The floating Sword in the Stone (formerly Balin’s Sword)
        1. Meant for Galahad
        2. Arrives at Camelot
      2. Gawain reluctantly
        1. At Arthur’s command
        2. The first to attempt to draw from the floating marble
        3. Gawain failed
      3. It was predicted that Gawain would receive a wound for having tried
    33. Shortly afterward, Gawain is the first to
      1. Propose the Quest of the Holy Grail
        1. When the Grail appears
        2. To the Knights of the Round Table
        3. At Arthur’s Court
      2. Announce his commitment to the Grail Quest
    34. In the Post-Vulgate
      1. Pellinore has killed Lot
      2. Gawain and his brothers kill
        1. Pellinore
        2. Pellinore’s sons
          1. Lamorat
          2. Drian
        3. Though Malory only alludes to the incident without describing the scene
      3. Gawain visits the Grail Castle
        1. Is unable to mend the Grail Sword
        2. He is additionally unable to deliver the daughter of King Pelles from her tub of boiling water
        3. In another visit to Corbenic
          1. Gawain sees the Grail
          2. His eyes are drawn away from the holy vessel to the beautiful maiden carrying it
          3. He is driven from the castle in a cart, surrounded by peasants pelting him with dung
    35. Gawain rather quickly tires of the Quest (due somewhat to very bad fortune)
      1. Eventually, Gawain is wounded by Galahad in a tournament
        1. By the same sword that Gawain had tried to draw from the stone
        2. In divine retribution for having attempted to draw Balin’s Sword
        3. Gawain is laid up for the rest of the quest
      2. During the quest
        1. Gawain, Gaheris, and Yvain kill the seven brothers
        2. Whom Galahad had exiled from the Castle of Maidens
      3. In the Grail Quest adventure, Gawain kills
        1. His cousin (Yvain the Bastard)/(Yvonet li Avoutres)
        2. King Bagdemagus
        3. The latter and apparently the former also by mischance in friendly joust
        4. Sixteen other knights
      4. Gawain is told by a hermit that he cannot achieve the Grail because he lacks
        1. Humility
        2. Patience
        3. Abstinence
    36. Afterwards, Arthur chastises Gawain for having killed so many knights during a holy quest
    37. As presented in Diu Crône (The Crown) by Heinrich von dem Türlin
      1. Gawain completes the Grail Quest
      2. He heals the Fisher King
      3. This might be representative of earlier stories in which Gawain achieves the Grail
    38. Sir Gawain had a custom that he used daily at dinner and at supper
      1. He loved well all manner of fruit (especially apples and pears)
      2. Whosoever dined or feasted Sir Gawain
      3. Would commonly purvey good fruit for him
      4. Sir Pinel le Savage, a cousin of Lamorak’s,
        1. Once tried to use this taste to avenge Lamorak
        2. By poisoning the fruit at a small dinner party of the Queen’s
    39. Gawain gets into his usual scrapes over women
      1. Gawain was often married (and often widowed)
      2. He is attacked by the King of North Wales (Norgales) after sleeping with the King’s daughter
      3. Gawain
        1. Allows himself to become enchanted by the ladies on the Rock of Maidens
        2. Has to be freed by his brother Gaheris
      4. By passing a test of nobility
        1. Gawain transforms the Carl of Carlisle
        2. He marries Carl’s daughter
      5. Gawain marries the loathly lady, Ragnell(e), in order to save Arthur
        1. Outside the city walls Arthur was overpowered by a local knight
          1. Who spared his life
          2. On condition that within a year he would return
          3. With the answer to the question
          4. “What is it that women most desire?”
        2. No one at his court could supply the answer
          1. Arthur was honour-bound to return to the knight
          2. When the year had elapsed
          3. Forfeit his life
        3. On his way to the meeting
          1. Arthur was approached by a hideous woman
          2. Who told him that she would give him the answer
          3. Provided the King found a husband for her
          4. Arthur agreed
          5. The hag told him that the one thing women desire most
          6. Is to have their own way
        4. The answer was related to the knight
          1. Proving correct
          2. Arthur’s life was spared
        5. Returning to his court
          1. Arthur appointed Sir Gawain
          2. To be the ugly woman’s husband
          3. Fulfilling his promise
        6. Though she was hideous beyond comprehension
          1. Gawain always treated her with knightly courtesy
          2. In return the woman offered Gawain a reward
          3. She would become beautiful either by day or by night, the choice was his
          4. Remembering the answer she had given Arthur
            • Gawain told her that she might have her own way
            • Bade her choose for herself
          5. His chivalrous answer broke the enchantment under which she had been held
          6. She immediately became beautiful by both day and night
      6. In Italian romance Gawain was said to be the lover of Morgan’s daughter, Pulzella Gaia
    40. When Arthur banished Gawain’s favourite cousin, Ywain(e)
      1. On suspicion of conspiracy with his mother Morgan le Fay
      2. Gawain chose to accompany Ywain(e)
      3. They met Sir Marhaus
      4. Later these three knights
        1. Met the damsels
          1. Printemps
          2. Été
          3. Automne
        2. In the forest of Arroy
      5. Leaving his companions to make the first choice of damsels
        1. Gawain ended with the youngest
        2. Who left him and went with another knight
      6. It was on this adventure that Gawain became involved in the affair
        1. Of Pelleas/Pellias
        2. And Arcade/Ettar(r)e/Ettard/Etnard
          1. Playing Pelleas/Pellias false
          2. By sleeping with Arcade/Ettar(r)e/Ettard/Etnard
          3. For which cause Pelleas/Pellias loved never after Sir Gawain interfered
    41. After about a year
      1. Arthur sent out messengers
      2. To recall his nephews
  5. Endings
    1. Introduction to Endings
    2. Gawain remains neutral during the discovery of Lancelot’s affair with Guinevere
      1. He warned his brothers and sons against what they were doing
      2. When Lancelot killed Agravain and three of Gawain’s sons in escaping from Guinevere’s chamber
        1. Gawain was ready to forgive all their deeds
        2. Pleaded earnestly with Arthur to allow Lancelot
          1. To defend Guinevere
          2. Prove their innocence in trial by combat
      3. Until Lancelot accidentally kills the unarmed Gaheris and Gareth
        1. While rescuing Guinevere from the stake
        2. Gawain felt bound to take vengeance
    3. Gawain’s fury forces Arthur into a war with Lancelot
      1. First in Joyous Garde
      2. Later in Lancelot’s lands in France
    4. Gawain refused any compromise, surrender or apology from Lancelot
    5. Gawain would continually challenge Lancelot to single combat
      1. Lancelot would defeat but refuse to kill Gawain
      2. Who would challenge Lancelot again as soon as his wounds were healed
    6. Finally, in Benoic/Benwick
      1. Gawain fights Lancelot in single combat
      2. He receives a serious head wound from Lancelot
    7. In Arthur’s continental campaign to prepare for war against Rome
      1. Gawain and Bors de Ganis are sent as a peace envoy
        1. To the camp of the Roman “Emperor” Lucius
        2. They carried Arthur’s message to Lucius
          • Leave the land
              or do battle.
      2. When Lucius defied Arthur’s message
        1. Hot words passed on either side
        2. Culminating when Gawain takes offense
          1. To some comments
          2. By Lucius’ cousin Sir Gainus
        3. Gawain beheads Gainus in a rage
          1. Which forced Gawain and Bors to take rather a bloody and hasty leave
          2. This starts the war
    8. The Romans attack Arthur while he is in France
    9. Gawain’s head wound
      1. Aggravated during the battle
      2. Broke open fatally, later at Dover in the first battle with Mordred’s army
    10. Arthur’s army returns to Britain to deal with Mordred’s treachery
    11. Gawain, on his deathbed, relents and says,
    12. In Malory’s Le Morte d’Arthur
      1. Gawain’s final letter of forgiveness to Lancelot is a magnanimous and moving moment
      2. Asking Lancelot’s prayers and forgiveness
      3. Begging him to hurry back to to Arthur’s assistance
        • By a more noble man might I not be slain.
    13. Gawain perishes of his wound a few days later
      1. At noon
      2. The tenth of May
      3. Dying at Richborough
    14. Gawain’s grave was discovered in Pembroke in Wales
      1. There seems to be some confusion with an obscure St Govan
      2. Who had a church in Pembroke
    15. Gawain’s grave was also discovered at Ros
      1. A place which cannot be identified with certainty
      2. During the reign of King William II (AD 1087 to 1100)
    16. At Dover Castle
      1. Gawain is interred in a chapel there
      2. Where his skull is on display
    17. In any case, Gawain is buried in a tomb with his brother Gaheris
    18. Gawain’s ghost appeared to Arthur
      1. In a dream
      2. The night of Trinity Sunday
      3. Accompanied by the ladies whose battles he had fought in life
    19. In the dream, Gawain warned Arthur
      1. To avoid battle with Mordred
      2. Until after Lancelot had arrived
      3. In the Vulgate, when Gawain appears in Arthur’s dream
        1. He comes not with ladies and damsels exclusively
        2. But with a great number of poor people whom he succored in life
  6. “Gawain” in “Literature”
    1. Introduction to “Gawain” in “Literature”
    2. Englynion y Beddau (Stanzas of the Graves) from Llyfr Du Caerfyrddin (Black Book of Carmarthen)
      1. Anonymous
      2. Tenth/Eleventh/Thirteenth Century AD
    3. The Modena Archivolt/Archivault
      1. Anonymous
      2. AD 1090/1120/1135/1140
    4. Gesta Regum Anglorum (Deeds of Kings of England)
      1. William of Malmesbury
      2. AD 1125
    5. Historia Regum Britanniae (History of Kings of Britain)
      1. Geoffrey of Monmouth
      2. AD 1136/1138/1139
    6. Roman de Brut (Romance of Brutus, or A History of the British)
      1. Robert Wace
      2. AD 1155
    7. Lancelot, or Le Chevalier de la Charrete (Lancelot, or The Knight of the Cart)
      1. Chrétien de Troyes
      2. Late Twelfth Century AD (c AD 1135)
    8. Érec et Énide (Erec and Enide)
      1. Chrétien de Troyes
      2. Late Twelfth Century AD (c AD 1170)
    9. Cligès
      1. Chrétien de Troyes
      2. Late Twelfth Century AD
    10. Le Chevalier à LÉpée (The Knight with the Sword)
      1. Anonymous
      2. Late Twelfth Century AD
    11. La Mule Sans Frein (The Mule without a Bridle)
      1. Paien de Maisières
      2. Late Twelfth Century AD
    12. Yvain, or Le Chevalier au Lion (Owain, or The Knight with the Lion)
      1. Chrétien de Troyes
      2. Late Twelfth Century AD (AD 1177/1181)
    13. Perceval, or Le Conte del Graal (Perceval, or The Story of the Grail)
      1. Chrétien de Troyes
      2. Late Twelfth Century AD (AD 1176/1180/1191)
    14. First Continuation of Chrétien’s Perceval
      1. Wauchier of Denain (Gauchier of Donaing)
      2. c AD 1200
    15. Trioedd Ynys Prydein (Triads of British Isle, or Welsh Triads)
      1. Especially Trioedd y Meirch (Triads of the Horses)
      2. Anonymous
      3. Eleventh/Fourteenth Centuries AD
    16. Parzival (Perceval)
      1. Wolfram von Eschenbach
      2. AD 1200/1210
    17. Culhwch ac Olwen (Culhwch/Kilhwch and Olwen)
      1. From the White Book of Rhydderch (c AD 1325) and the Red Book of Hergest (c AD 1400)
      2. Originally mid Eleventh Century AD (AD 990/1100)
    18. Bonedd y Saint/Seint (Descent of the Saints), or Achau Saint Ynys Prydain (Genealogy of the Saints, or Pedigrees of Saints of the Isle of Britain)
      1. Anonymous
      2. Early 13th Century AD
    19. Les Enfances Gauvain (The Youth of Gawain)
      1. Anonymous
      2. Early Thirteenth Century AD
    20. Vulgate Cycle, or Lancelot-Grail (Cycle), or Prose Lancelot, or the Pseudo-Map Cycle
      1. Especially Queste del Saint Graal (Quest of the Holy Grail)
      2. Anonymous
      3. AD 1210s/1215/1230
    21. La Vengeance Raguidel (The Avenging of Raguidel)
      1. Raoul de Houdenc
      2. Early Thirteenth Century AD
    22. Wigalois(/Wizalois)
      1. Wirnt von Grafenberg
      2. Early Thirteenth Century AD
    23. Diu Crône (The Crown)
      1. Heinrich von dem Türlin
      2. c AD 1230
    24. Post-Vulgate Cycle
      1. Anonymous
      2. AD 1230/1240
    25. Prose Tristan
      1. Anonymous
      2. AD 1230/1240
    26. L’Atre Périlleux (The Perilous Cemetery)
      1. Anonymous
      2. Mid Thirteenth Century AD
    27. Les Merveilles de Rigomer (The Marvels of Rigomer)
      1. Jehan
      2. Mid/Late Thirteenth Century AD
    28. Roman van Walewein (Romance of Gawain)
      1. Penninc and Pieter Vostaert
      2. Mid/Late Thirteenth Century AD
    29. De Ortu Waluuanii Nepotis Arturi (Of Rise of Gawain, Nephew of Arthur)
      1. Anonymous
      2. Late Thirteenth Century AD
    30. The Avowing of King Arthur, Sir Gawain, Sir Kay, and Baldwin of Britain
      1. Anonymous
      2. Thirteenth/Fourteenth Century AD
    31. The Birth of Arthur
      1. Anonymous
      2. Fourteenth Century AD
    32. Sir Gawayne and the Greene Knight (Sir Gawain and the Green Knight)
      1. Anonymous
      2. Fourteenth Century AD (c AD 1400)
    33. The Awntyrs off Arthure at the Terne/Turne Wathelan/Wathelyn(e) (The Adventures of Arthur at the Lake/Tarn Wadling)
      1. Anonymous
      2. Late Fourteenth Century AD
    34. Syre Gawene and the Carle of Carlyle (Sir Gawain and the Carl/Churl of Carlisle)
      1. Anonymous
      2. c AD 1400
    35. The Weddyng(e) of Syr Gawen and Dame Ragnell (The Wedding of Sir Gawain and Dame Ragnell)
      1. Sir Thomas Malory
      2. Fifteenth Century AD (c AD 1450)
    36. The Marriage of Sir Gawain(e)
      1. Anonymous
      2. Fifteenth Century AD
    37. Le Morte d’Arthur (The Death of Arthur)
      1. Sir Thomas Malory
      2. AD 1469/1470/1485
    38. The Turke and Gowin (The Churl and Gawain)
      1. Anonymous
      2. c AD 1500
  7. Appendices: Geography, Genealogy, and Timeline
    1. Geography of Gawain
    2. Genealogy of Gawain
    3. Timeline of Gawain

“There is more of Rome*, than of Romance, about Arthuriana”Glyn Hnutu-healh
 
*and Achaea, Akkad, Alans, Anglia, Arameans, Armorica, Assyria, Babylon, Briton, Cambria, Canaan, Cornwall, Crete, Cumbria, Dalriada, Domnonia, Egypt,
Etruscans, ExtraTerrestrials, France, Frisia, Gaul, Greece, Hindavi, Hittites, Huns, Hurrians, Idubor, Ireland, Judaea, Jutland, Lydia, Macedonia,
Mesopotamia, Mycenaea, Narts, Norse, Persia, Phoenicia, Phrygia, Picts, Saxony, Scotland, Semites, Sumer, Ugarit, and Wales — to name a few

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