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Merlin, Prophet
and Wizard of Logres

  1. Introduction to Merlin, Prophet and Wizard of Logres
  2. Meaning, Origin, Existence, and Comparison: Merlin’s Name, Multiple Merlins, and Other “Merlins”
    1. Introduction to the Meaning, Origin, Existence, and Comparison:
           Merlin’s Name, Multiple Merlins, and Other “Merlins”
    2. Meaning and Origin of Merlin’s Name
      1. Introduction to the Meaning and Origin of Merlin’s Name
      2. As Title, Honorific, or Office
      3. Individual Name(s)
        1. Moridunum/Moridunon/Caerfyrddin/Carmarthen — “sea fortress”
          1. City founded by Merlin
          2. Named for the Wizard
        2. Myrddin — “fortress”
      4. The historian Godfried of Viterbo claimed Merlin was “Saxon”
    3. Existence of Multiple Merlins
      1. Introduction to the Existence of Multiple Merlins
      2. The idea that there were, at least, two Merlins: A Wizard and A Madman/(Wild Man)
        1. Found in Giraldus Cambrensis (Norman-Welsh chronicler of the 12th Century AD)
        2. Impossibly long lifespan assigned to Merlin by Geoffrey of Monmouth
      3. Myrrdin/Myrddin/Merlin
        1. God of Druid, Magic, and Sorcery
        2. (The Evening Star)
        3. In the Welsh Triads
          1. Earliest name for Britain was (Clas Myrddin)/(Merlin’s Enclosure/Precinct)
          2. As though Myrrdin/Myrddin/Merlin were a God with proprietorial rights
        4. Britain was also known as the Fortress Isle, or Myrddin’s Isle
      4. Myrddin/Merdhin/Merlin(us) Wyllt/(the Wild)/Caledonensis/Sylvester/Sylvestris
        1. late 6th/early 7th Century AD
        2. Welsh
        3. Bard
        4. Adviser
        5. At the court of King Gwenddalou (who died at Arfderydd/Arthuret in AD 573)
        6. Was known to Kentigern
          1. Who lived from AD 550 to AD 612
          2. Was Strathclyde bishop of Glasgow
          3. Appointed by Rhydderch, the new king of Strathclyde
        7. Spoke Prophecies
      5. Myrddin/Merdhin/Merlin(us) Emrys/Ambrosius
      6. Myrdhinn/Merdyn (Ennis)
      7. (Merdhin ap Morvryn)/(Merlinus Avalonius)
      8. Merrillin
      9. Mellin
        1. Merlin at the end of the Le Petit Saint Graal (The Lesser Holy Graal), or Joseph d’Arimathie (Joseph of Arimathea)
        2. By Robert de Boron
        3. Late Twelfth Century AD (AD 1190/1191/1202/1210)
      10. Mellins
        1. Merlin in the Roman de l’Escoufle (Romance of the Kite)
        2. By Jehan Renart
        3. Late 12th/early 13th Century AD
      11. Marlyn
        1. Son of Morgan le Fay and Ogier the Dane
        2. AD 1405
      12. Merlyn
        1. Merlin in the Bath manuscript of “Merlyn”
        2. AD 1420s
      13. Marlanis
    4. Comparison of Merlin to Other Similar Personages/Gods
      1. Introduction to the Comparison of Merlin to Other Similar Personages/Gods
      2. Suibhne Gelt
      3. Lailoken (perhaps “twin brother”) the Madman/(Wild Man)
      4. Aurelius Ambrosius, Prefect of Gaul and father of St Ambrose
      5. Aurelius Ambrosius (St Ambrose)
      6. Aurelius Ambrosius (Aurelian the Divine) the Elder, Duce of Caer Gloui
        1. son of Flavius Constantius III Augustus (and an earlier wife), son of Malvius, son of Eucherius (son of Flavius Honorius and Placidia Flavia) and Flavia
        2. b c AD 396
        3. reigned AD 431/432 to AD 435 (Midland, Cornovii)
        4. d 473
      7. Ambrosius/Emrys/Embreis Aurelianus Wledic/(G)wledig/Guletic the Younger
        1. son of Custennin/Constantin(e)/(Constantinus I) ap Selyf(an)/Salomon I, son of Urbienus/Gradlon Mawr/(The Great)
        2. b AD 439/440
        3. reigned AD 473/474 to AD 475/476 (High-King/Pendragon of Briton; Breton/Cornouaille/Kerne(v))
        4. d AD 489/490
      8. Malduc
      9. Menw ab/ap Teir(g)waedd
      10. Dubric(ius)/Dyfrig of/the Myrddin/Merlin/(mermaid/merman/waterman/baptiser)
        1. A miraculous birth
          1. Dubricius had no father
          2. He was the son of a nun
            • The nun herself was a granddaughter of King Constantine
            • Making her a second cousin to “King Arthur”
        2. Dubricius was an acknowledged historical person
        3. He founded the bishopric at Llandaff
        4. Ordained Samson (b AD 480, d AD 565), late Bishop of Dol in Brittany
        5. He was raised to the See of Caerleon
        6. In later years, he was raised to the Sainthood
        7. Dubricius became “Primate of Britain”
        8. Attributed with miraculous powers of healing
        9. At the Battle of Mount Badon
          1. Dubricius speaks to the troops
          2. From the Mount
        10. This saintly man resigned his archbishopric
          1. In order to become a hermit
          2. To devote his final years to solace and prayer
        11. Merlin and Dubricius may have been enemies
          1. Dubricius represented the church
          2. Merlin represented a pagan culture, synonymous with the Druids
        12. Dubricius died c AD 550/612 (or even earlier)
        13. He was buried on the Isle of Bardsey
        14. His body was translated to the abbey at Llandaff in AD 1120
      11. Talies(s)in
      12. Llywarch Hen
      13. Aneurin
      14. Mabon
      15. Cernunnos
      16. (Máel Dúin)/Maelduin
        1. son of warrior chieftain Ailill Ochair Aghra
        2. His mother was a nun raped by Ailill
      17. Melin de Saint-Gelais
        1. Poet
        2. Late 15th/early 16th Century AD
  3. Beginnings
    1. Family
      1. Introduction to Family
      2. Mother — a nun, of royal birth
        1. Aldan/Adhan
        2. Optima
        3. Marinaia
      3. Father
        1. Demon(s) of Air (Incubus/Incubi)
        2. A Devil
        3. Madog Morfryn/Morvryn, son of Morydd
        4. Morgan Frych, Prince of Gwynedd
      4. Sister — Ganieda/Gwend(d)ydd
        1. As a person (perhaps Merlin’s twin)
        2. As a Goddess (the Morning Star)
      5. Wife — (Elen Lwyddawg)/Gwendoloena/Guendoloena/Coventina
      6. Son — Vanoc
      7. Daughters
        1. Inogen
        2. La Damosel del Grant Pui de Mont Dolerous
      8. Merlin’s Assistant — Melior
    2. “Merlin” at his Literary Beginnings (by description of events and by name itself)
      1. Y Guotoðin (The Gododdin: The Votadini) in the Llyfr Aneirin (Book of Aneirin)
        1. Aneirin of the Votadini
        2. Sixth/Seventh/Tenth Centuries AD (c AD 600)
      2. Historia Brittonum (History of Britons)
        1. (pseudo-)Nennius/Nemnuuis/Ninnius/Nemnius
        2. Late Eighth/early Ninth Century AD (AD 828/829/830)
      3. Annales Cambriae (Annals of Wales)
        1. Anonymous
        2. Ninth/Tenth Century AD (AD 960/980)
      4. Gesta Regum Anglorum (Deeds of Kings of England)
        1. William of Malmesbury
        2. AD 1125
      5. Vita Gildae (Life of Gildas)
        1. Caradoc of Llancarfan
        2. c AD 1130
      6. Prophetiae/Libellus Merlini (Prophecy/Petition of Merlin)
        1. Geoffrey of Monmouth
        2. AD 1133
      7. Historia Regum Britanniae (History of Kings of Britain)
        1. Geoffrey of Monmouth
        2. AD 1136/1138/1139
      8. Vita Merlini (Life of Merlin)
        1. Geoffrey of Monmouth
        2. c AD 1150
      9. Roman de Brut (Romance of Brutus, or A History of the British)
        1. Robert Wace
        2. AD 1155
      10. Merlin
        1. Robert de Boron
        2. AD 1191/1202
      11. Le Petit Saint Graal (The Lesser Holy Graal), or Joseph d’Arimathie (Joseph of Arimathea)
        1. Robert de Boron
        2. Late Twelfth Century AD (AD 1190/1191/1202/1210)
      12. Roman de l’Escoufle (Romance of the Kite)
        1. Jehan Renart
        2. Late 12th/early 13th Century AD
      13. Vulgate Estoire del Saint Grail (History of the Holy Grail), or Estoire de Merlin (History of Merlin), or Vulgate/Prose Merlin)
        1. Anonymous
        2. Early Thirteenth Century AD (AD 1220/1230s/1235)
      14. Vulgate Suite du Merlin
        1. Anonymous
        2. AD 1220/1230s/1235
      15. Le Livre d’Artus (The Book of Arthur)
        1. Anonymous
        2. Early Thirteenth Century AD
      16. Post-Vulgate Suite du Merlin, or Huth-Merlin (Continuation of Merlin)
        1. Anonymous
        2. AD 1230/1240
      17. Arthour and Merlin (Arthur and Merlin)
        1. Anonymous
        2. Late Thirteenth Century AD
      18. Bath manuscript of “Merlyn”
        1. Anonymous
        2. AD 1420s
      19. Le Morte d’Arthur (The Death of Arthur)
        1. Sir Thomas Malory
        2. AD 1469/1470/1485
      20. Venetia edificata (Venice Edified)
        1. Giulio Strozzi
        2. AD 1624
    3. Historical Context
      1. Introduction to Historical Context
      2. Patrick
        1. Arrived in Ireland c AD 432
        2. Established a bishopric at Armagh c AD 454
        3. Died c AD 461
        4. Patrick may well have known Merlin or known of him
      3. Attila the Hun
        1. Became king of the Huns in AD 434
        2. He invaded France in AD 451
        3. Invaded Italy and Rome itself in AD 452
    4. Conception and Birth
      1. Introduction to Conception and Birth
      2. Conception
      3. Birth — c AD 448/449
        1. Robert de Boron has Merlin born in Brittany
        2. Merlin was of royal blood
          1. Geoffrey of Monmouth considered Merlin to be the King of Powys
          2. Giulio Strozzi
            • In his Venetia edificata (Venice Edified)
            • AD 1624
            • Makes Merlin royal
    5. Childhood — Innocent Prophetic Youth
      1. Introduction to Childhood — Innocent Prophetic Youth
      2. At his mother’s trial, the infant (Myrddin Emrys)/(Merlin(us) Ambrosius)/(Ambrosius Merlinus) himself
        1. Revealed who was his father
        2. Made a few other prophecies and revelations
          1. At least one of them rather embarrassing
          2. To the judges
      3. (Myrddin Emrys)/(Merlin(us) Ambrosius)/(Ambrosius Merlinus) was raised in a nunnery
      4. King Vortigern of Britain (b c AD 380, d c AD 457)
        1. The Saxons aided Vortigern in the repulsion of the Picts
        2. For a short period there was peace
        3. Vortigern married Hengist’s daughter
          1. Reinwen
          2. To form an alliance
        4. In AD 455, Hengist sent for further reinforcements
        5. Vortigern then fled to the Welsh hills a couple of years before his death
        6. He was haplessly trying to build a new tower
          1. Whenever it was erected
          2. It would collapse
        7. The king’s counsellours told him
          1. To remedy this
          2. He would need to sacrifice a fatherless child
        8. Such children were hard to find
          1. (Myrddin Emrys)/(Merlin(us) Ambrosius)/(Ambrosius Merlinus), now a youth, was popularly supposed to be sireless
          2. He was secured for this purpose
            • By Vortigern’s soldiers
            • When (Myrddin Emrys)/(Merlin(us) Ambrosius)/(Ambrosius Merlinus) was about eight or nine years old (AD 457)
            • This followed the Saxon invasion of Britain
              • Under Hengist
              • Usually dated to c AD 449
        9. (Myrddin Emrys)/(Merlin(us) Ambrosius)/(Ambrosius Merlinus) pointed out the real reason for the collapse
          1. The existence of a pool beneath the foundations
          2. Digging revealed the truth
          3. A brace of dragons emerged
            • One red
            • One white
            • Thus revealing a double vase cremation burial of two dragons-chieftains
          4. This caused (Myrddin Emrys)/(Merlin(us) Ambrosius)/(Ambrosius Merlinus) to utter a series of prophecies
        10. To cheer up Vortigern’s melancholy, Myrddin Emrys provided various entertainments
          1. Invisible musicians
          2. Flying hounds chasing flying hares
        11. Vortigern went on to be killed
          1. By the sons of Constans/Constantine
          2. As per (Myrddin Emrys’)/(Merlin(us) Ambrosius’)/(Ambrosius Merlinus’) prophecy
    6. Adolescence of Merlin
      1. Introduction to the Adolescence of Merlin
      2. Merlin went to study magic from Blaise
      3. Outstripped his master in necromantic learning
      4. Merlin swore
        1. Never to do Blaise harm
        2. To ask Blaise to write a book
      5. Blaise retired
        1. Into the forest of Northumberland
        2. To write down the doings of his former student
          1. One does not envy Blaise his task
          2. It would be difficult and tedious
          3. To list every deed and prophecy of Merlin’s
        3. Merlin visited Blaise from time to time
  4. Adulthood — Wizard: Hermit/(Wise Elder) and the Great Necromancer
    1. Introduction to Adulthood — Wizard: Hermit/(Wise Elder) and the Great Necromancer
    2. Hermit/(Wise Elder)
      1. Introduction to Hermit/(Wise Elder)
      2. Appearances/Reincarnations
        1. First appeared in Vortigern’s time as (Myrddin Emrys)/(Merlin(us) Ambrosius)/(Ambrosius Merlinus)
        2. Reincarnated as Talies(s)in
        3. Then reincarnated once more as Myrddin/Merlin Wyllt/(the Wild)
      3. Ambrosii (the Elder and/or the Younger)
        1. Pandragon/Pendragon/(Aurelius Ambrosius) and Uther returned from Gaul
        2. Hengist is killed
          1. Having ruled over his stronghold in Kent for at least thirty years
          2. He perished c AD 488 (the date in Anglo-Saxon Chronicles)
        3. King Pandragon/Pendragon/(Aurelius Ambrosius)
          1. Constans’/Constantine’s son
          2. A descendant of a Roman family
          3. Sought to uphold the last vestiges of Roman civilization in Britain
          4. From a noble British family with Roman sympathies
          5. Defeated Vortigern
          6. Fought back the Saxons from overrunning Britain
          7. Established an uneasy peace with Hengist’s men remaining in Kent
          8. Had lordship over the rest of southern Britain
          9. Involved in a battle at Guoloph, or Wallop, in Hampshire
          10. Killed by the Sesnes
          11. Merlin made an expedition to Ireland
            • Brought back stones
              • To be erected on Salisbury Plain
              • Raised as Stonehenge
            • To serve as
              • A monument and memorial
              • Pandragon’s/Pendragon’s/(Aurelius Ambrosius’) tomb (“sepulchre”)
        4. The new king
          1. Pandragon’s/Pendragon’s/(Aurelius Ambrosius’) brother Uther
          2. Surnamed Pendragon (chief dragon/ruler) in honour of the late king
          3. Gained Merlin as his advisor
          4. Sought to hold back the Saxons (less successfully than his predecessor)
      4. Uther
        1. To Uther, Merlin revealed the mysteries of the two holy tables
          1. The one Christ and His disciples used at the Last Supper
          2. The one Joseph of Arimathea and his followers set up
        2. Merlin erected the third great table, the Round Table
          1. For Uther
          2. At Cardoel in Wales
          3. From where it passed into the keeping of Leodegrance
          4. Thence to Arthur
        3. Uther conceived a lust for the duchess Igerne/Igraine/Ygraine/Arnive of Tintagel
          1. Merlin gave Uther the appearance of the lady’s husband Gorloïs
          2. So that Igerne/Igraine/Ygraine/Arnive lay with Uther unsuspecting
          3. Uther married Igerne/Igraine/Ygraine/Arnive soon after the death of Gorloïs
        4. Merlin visited Uther
          1. He told Uther that someone must foster the child
          2. Uther told Merlin to make the decision
          3. Arthur’s foster father
            • Merlin knew of a lord of Uther’s in the land
            • His name was Sir Ector
            • Merlin said that Ector shall foster Uther’s child
            • Sir Ector was sent for, and spoke with Uther
          4. When the child (Arthur) was born
            • He was to be delivered to Merlin
            • “At yonder privy postern”
            • Unchristened
              • To make of Arthur
              • Merlin’s own pawn and tool?
      5. An Arthur’s Birth
        1. c AD 475 — Merlin at age 26/27 years
        2. Then when the lady Igerne/Igraine/Ygraine/Arnive was delivered
          1. King Uther commanded two knights and two ladies to take the child
            • Bound in a cloth of gold
            • “That ye deliver him
              • To what poor man ye meet
              • At the postern gate of the castle”
          2. So the child was delivered unto Merlin
      6. Uther died
        1. At least two years after Arthur’s birth (c AD 477 — Merlin at 28/29 years old)
        2. But no more than fifteen (c AD 490 — Merlin at 42/43)
        3. The noblemen of Britain implored
          1. To “Dubricius, Archbishop of the City of the Legions
          2. That is their king he should crown Arthur”
        4. Dubricius had clear authority and the power to anoint kings
      7. Merlin during an Arthur’s Adolescence
        1. Merlin/Dubricius as wise counsellor (senior advisor) to Arthur
          1. A boy king may sustain the support of his people
          2. He would require someone to help him in his judgements
          3. An obvious role for Merlin
          4. Geoffrey of Monmouth makes no record of this role
        2. Merlin arranged the famous test of the Sword in the Stone
        3. He had Arthur crowned king
          1. On the strength of this test
          2. On the sentiment of the commons (both rich and poor)
        4. The rebel kings and barons gave Arthur their challenge
          1. Of refusing to yield their allegiance
          2. At once to
            • An unknown
            • Unproven youth
            • The protégé of a devil’s son
        5. Merlin made them a bald statement
          1. With no supporting evidence
          2. Of Arthur’s birth
        6. Some of the rebel kings and barons
          1. Laughed Arthur to scorn (as example, King Lot)
          2. Called Arthur a witch
      8. An Arthur’s True Parentage
        1. Nor had Merlin yet told this Arthur of his parentage
        2. Which omission resulted in the incestuous begetting of Mordred on Margawse
        3. This Arthur’s lack of knowledge
          1. Concerning Margawse’s blood relationship
          2. Is a later Christianisation of the situation
        4. Earlier tales
          1. Call her Anna
          2. Make her Arthur’s full sister
            • Of which Arthur had prior knowledge
            • Of this particular blood relationship
        5. The battle of Bedegraine
          1. A slaughter so bloody it seems to have disgusted Merlin himself
          2. Merlin had helped engineer Arthur’s victory
            • By bringing the army of Ban and Bors
            • Swiftly and secretly to the place
          3. After the battle, Merlin reveals this Arthur’s parentage
            • With some supporting evidence
            • To Arthur and the assembled court
            • That suggests a practical joke played by Merlin on Igerne/Igraine/Ygraine/Arnive
            • To give her an additional moment of grief
            • Before restoring her to her son
            • Later addition to rationalise Arthur’s earlier ignorance
            • Sir Ulfius himself stated
              • That “Merlin is more to blame than” Igerne/Igraine/Ygraine/Arnive
              • For the wars of the rebellion
    3. The Great Necromancer
      1. Introduction to the Great Necromancer
      2. Merlin did considerable travelling on the Continent
        1. Between the times of Vortigern’s and Pandragon’s/Pendragon’s/(Aurelius Ambrosius’) deaths
        2. During the years when Sir Ector was raising Arthur
      3. One of his continental adventures may be found under Avenable/(Lovely)/Anable
        1. Daughter of Duke Mathem of Soane
        2. Disguised herself as a squire named Grisandoles
        3. At that time, Merlin was in the forest of Romenie
      4. Merlin dabbled in Christian missionary work
        1. Converting King Flualis of Jerusalem and his wife
        2. This royal couple had four daughters, who in turn had fifty-five sons
          1. All good knights
          2. These went forth to convert the heathen
          3. Some of them reached Arthur’s court
      5. During this period, Merlin met Nin(n)ian(n)e/Nimuë/Nimue/Nymue/Viv(i)ane/Vivienne/Nivian(e)
        1. The Lady of the Lake
        2. He fell in love with her
        3. Taught her his crafts in return for the promise of her love
      6. Merlin could prophecy anything
        1. Though fairly early in his career, before Arthur’s birth
        2. He decided to phrase his prophecies in obscure terms
        3. Merlin could apparently do anything within the scope of necromancy
        4. Except break the spell that was to be his downfall
        5. Merlin uttered prophecies about the House of Hohenstaufen
        6. He was charged (unsuccessfully) with heresy by a bishop called Conrad
      7. Merlin must have made rather a pest of himself with his disguises
        1. Toddler
        2. Beggar
        3. Blind minstrel
        4. Stag
        5. Other disguises
      8. He seems to have had the temperament of a practical joker
      9. Some of his prophecies may well have been more mischievous than useful
        1. Merlin entered the battlefield with Arthur and his armies
        2. Does seem to have given them invaluable help
        3. One of Merlin’s pastimes in battle was moving around the field
          1. Telling the King and his knights
          2. Every time they took a short break
          3. From doing really tremendous deeds of arms and valour
            • What cowards they were
            • How disgracefully they were carrying on
      10. Merlin may not have counselled Arthur to destroy the May babies, Herod-like
        1. Merlin certainly sowed the seed of that action
        2. By telling Arthur that one of these babies would be the King’s destruction
        3. Merlin appears not to have lifted his voice against the mass slaughter
      11. He did warn Arthur against marrying Guinevere
        1. Foretelling her affair with Lancelot
        2. In that instance, Merlin’s advice was ignored by Arthur
        3. (Did Merlin implant the suspicion that erupted in Arthur’s vengeful rage?)
      12. Merlin engineered Arthur’s acquisition of Excalibur, sword and sheath/scabbard
        1. Apparently acted in unison with Malory’s first British Lady of the Lake
        2. Who was later revealed to have been very wicked
        3. By the sincere though unfortunate Balin le Savage
          1. Merlin learned of Balin’s accusation
          2. He did not defend his slain cohort by denying the charge
          3. Nor rail against Balin for killing her
          4. Merlin only replied with a countercharge against the damsel “Malvis”
      13. Merlin had a habit of arriving just a little too late to do the most good
      14. He was capable of very rapid travel
        1. Merlin let Balin
          1. Lie beneath the ruins of Pellam’s castle
          2. For three days before coming to rescue him
          3. By which time Balin’s damsel (Sir Herlews’ lady) was dead
        2. Later Merlin showed up the morning after the deaths of Balin and Balan
          1. Just in time to write their names
          2. On their tomb
      15. Merlin appears to be something of a misogynist
        1. He could hardly have been insensitive to a beautiful face
        2. He did not spend all his time at Arthur’s court
        3. During one of Merlin’s absences
          1. He taught necromancy
          2. To Morgan le Fay
          3. In Bedingran
    4. Merlin and Tristan
      1. Merlin delivered King Meliodas of Lyonesse
        1. From the enchantress’ prison
        2. The morning after the death of Meliodas’ wife
        3. Had Merlin arrived a few days earlier
        4. The brave and devoted Elizabeth would not have died
      2. He saved the baby Tristan
      3. Boiardo (an Italian poet) said Merlin made a fountain for Tristan
        1. To drink from so he would forget Isolde
        2. But Tristan never found it
  5. Endings — Madman/(Wild Man)/Lailoken; and Merlin’s Retirement/Death/Imprisonment, “Burial”, and Haunting(s)
    1. Introduction to Endings
    2. Madman/(Wild Man)/Lailoken
      1. Introduction to Madman/(Wild Man)/Lailoken
      2. Myrddin/Merlin is active after Camlann
        1. Bringing a wounded Arthur
        2. To Avalon
      3. Myrddin/Merlin then went mad after the battle of Arthuret/Arfderydd
        1. In AD 573
        2. Myrddin/Merlin became a Wild Man
        3. Living in the woods (Caledonian Forest)
        4. According to Giraldus Cambrensis
          1. This was because of some horrible sight
          2. He beheld in the sky
          3. During the fighting
        5. Rhydderch Hael
          1. Was King of Cumbria
          2. Who was married to Myrddin/Merlin’s sister, Ganieda/Gwend(d)ydd
          3. Had Myrddin/Merlin Wyllt/(the Wild) fighting against him (or fighting by his side, in other accounts)
          4. The new king of Strathclyde, who had defeated (and killed) Gwenddalou at Arfderydd /Arthuret
          5. Threatened to hunt down Myrddin/Merlin Wyllt/(the Wild)
            • Because of poetical propaganda
            • Myrddin/Merlin Wyllt/(the Wild) had been spreading against King Rhydderch
        6. Three of Myrddin/Merlin Wyllt/(the Wild’s) brothers died in the battle
        7. It was for these reasons that Myrddin/Merlin Wyllt/(the Wild) fled into the Caledonian Forest
        8. As a latter-day Druid who took part in shamanistic practices
      4. After a time
        1. Ganieda/Gwend(d)ydd persuaded Myrddin/Merlin Wyllt/(the Wild) to give up his life in the forest
        2. Myrddin/Merlin Wyllt/(the Wild) revealed to Rhydderch that Ganieda/Gwend(d)ydd had been unfaithful to him
      5. Myrddin/Merlin Wyllt/(the Wild) decided
        1. To return to the greenwood
        2. To urge his wife to remarry
      6. His madness once again took hold of him
        1. Myrddin/Merlin Wyllt/(the Wild) turned up at the wedding
        2. Riding a stag
        3. Leading a herd of deer
        4. In Myrddin/Merlin Wyllt/(the Wild’s) rage
          1. He tore the antlers from the stag
          2. Flung them at the bridegroom, killing him
      7. Myrddin/Merlin Wyllt/(the Wild) went back to the woods
      8. Ganieda built him an observatory from which he could study the stars
    3. Merlin’s Retirement/Death/Imprisonment, “Burial”, and Haunting(s)
      1. Introduction to Merlin’s Retirement/Death/Imprisonment, “Burial”, and Haunting(s)
      2. Retirement/Death/Imprisonment
        1. According to Malory
          1. Merlin had become infatuated by Nimuë/(Viv(i)ane/Vivienne/Nivian(e))
          2. The Lady of the Lake
          3. Whom he had taught magical secrets
          4. Which she used to imprison him, ensnared, under a stone in Cornwall
        2. In the Prophetiae Merlini
          1. Nivian(e) confines him in the forest of Brocéliande
          2. With walls of air
            • Visible as mist to others
            • But as a beautiful tower to Merlin
        3. Another version has it that Merlin angers Arthur
          1. To the point where Arthur beheads Merlin
          2. Cuts him in half
          3. Burns Merlin
          4. Curses him
        4. According to Giulio Strozzi
          1. Merlin lived in a cave when Attila the Hun invaded Italy
          2. While there, Merlin invented the telescope
        5. Merlin retired voluntarily to an esplumeor or “place of confinement”
        6. Older versions of the tale
          1. Have Nimuë/Viv(i)ane retiring Merlin through affection
          2. Giving him a retreat of comfort and cheer
        7. Otherwise, Merlin is in cozy retirement in a tumulus on Bodmin Moor, Cornwall
        8. Perhaps Merlin requested Nimuë
          1. To take over the mentorship of Arthur’s court for him
          2. She does appear from time to time in this role
          3. Throughout much of Malory’s work
      3. “Burial”
        1. Tombeau de Merlin (Merlin’s Tomb)
          1. Buried in a neolithic formation of stones
          2. Leading to an antechamber within the earth
          3. Now composed of only two perpendicular slabs of red schist
          4. Separated by an old holly tree
        2. A bank of earth at the Camp du Tournoi in Brittany
        3. Ille-et-Vilaine
        4. Hotie de Viviane
        5. Drumelzier in Scotland
        6. Merlin’s Mount in the grounds of Marlborough College
        7. Mynydd Fyrddin
        8. Merlin’s Hill Cave in Carmarthen
        9. According to Ariosto, Merlin’s soul was in a tomb
          1. The soul informed the female warrior Bradmante
          2. That the House of Este would descend from her
      4. Haunting(s)
        1. Merlin’s ghost is said to haunt Merlin’s Cave at Tintagel
        2. At various times
          1. Bagdemagus and Gawain passed near his tomb and spoke with him
          2. Others heard him as well
          3. Gawain seems to have been the last to hear his voice
          4. There was a prophecy
            • That either Perceval or Galahad
            • Was to rescue Merlin
            • After achieving the Grail
        3. Pilgrimages made to Merlin’s Spring at Barenton in Brittany
          1. Were stopped by the Vatican
          2. In AD 1853
  6. Appendices: Geography, Genealogy, and Timeline
    1. Geography of Merlin
    2. Genealogy of Merlin
    3. Timeline of Merlin

“There is more of Rome*, than of Romance, about Arthuriana”Glyn Hnutu-healh
 
*and Achaea, Akkad, Alans, Anglia, Arameans, Armorica, Assyria, Babylon, Briton, Cambria, Canaan, Cornwall, Crete, Cumbria, Dalriada, Domnonia, Egypt,
Etruscans, ExtraTerrestrials, France, Frisia, Gaul, Greece, Hindavi, Hittites, Huns, Hurrians, Idubor, Ireland, Judaea, Jutland, Lydia, Macedonia,
Mesopotamia, Mycenaea, Narts, Norse, Persia, Phoenicia, Phrygia, Picts, Saxony, Scotland, Semites, Sumer, Ugarit, and Wales — to name a few

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