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Morgan le Fay, Mordred, and Dwellers in Avalon:
Dark Mysteries of Logres

None of the line items that are included in the following outline are meant to be links.
The outline itself represents the material that is to be covered in the upcoming book known by the above title (available after March 2020).

  1. Introduction to Morgan le Fay, Mordred, and Dwellers in Avalon: Dark Mysteries of Logres
  2. Morgan le Fay, one of the Dark Mysteries of Logres
    1. Introduction to Morgan le Fay, one of the Dark Mysteries of Logres
    2. Meaning, Origin, Existence, and Comparison: Morgan le Fay’s Name, Multiple “Morgans”, and Other Similar Queens/Empresses/Goddesses
      1. Introduction to the Meaning, Origin, Existence, and Comparison:
                       Morgan le Fay’s Name, Multiple “Morgans”, and Other Similar Queens/Empresses/Goddesses
      2. Meaning and Origin of the Name Morgan le Fay
        1. Introduction to the Meaning and Origin of the Name Morgan le Fay
        2. (Morgan le Fay(e))/(Morgana/Morgan(n)a/Morghana the Fairy)/(Morgant la Fee)
          1. Description
            • Arthur’s half-sister
            • A necromancer
            • A powerful mythical enchantress
          2. Etymology
            • Introduction to Etymology
            • Not to be confused
              • With the Modern Welsh masculine name Morgan
              • Spelled Morcant in the Old Welsh
            • Her epithet “le Fay”
              • From the French la fée, “the fairy”
              • Some traits indicates the figure of Morgan le Fay appears to have been a remnant of supernatural female figures from mythology
            • Her main name could be connected to the myths of Mari-Morgan(s)/Morgan(s)/Morgen(s)
              • Welsh water-spirits
              • Breton water-spirits
          3. While later works make her specifically human, she retains her magical powers
        3. (Morganda Fatata)/(Morgan the Fairy)
          1. In Otia Imperialia (Recreation for an Emperor)
          2. By Gervasius von Tilbury (Gervase of Tilbury)
        4. Margant(e)/Argante
          1. In Brut (Brutus, or The Chronicle of Britain)
          2. By Layamon
        5. Feimurgan/Famurgan/(Fairy Murgan)
          1. In Erec
          2. By Hartmann von Aue
        6. Marguel
        7. Morga(i)n(e)(is)/Morghain
        8. Morg(u)(e)(i)n/Mori-genā/(sea born)
          1. Appears as Morgen
            • The name survives in Middle Welsh as Moryen/Morien
            • A cognate form in Old Irish is Muirgein
              • A Christian shape-shifting female saint
              • Who was associated with the sea
          2. In Vita Merlini
          3. By Geoffrey of Monmouth
        9. Morg(u)e/Morgne
      3. Existence of Multiple “Morgans”
        1. Introduction to the Existence of Multiple “Morgans”
        2. Morgan/(Elaine)
          1. An illegitimate daughter of the Duke of Tintagel
          2. Distinct from Morgan Le Fay
          3. Married Nentres/Nante(r)(s)/Na(n)tres/Neutres/(Nextres de Garloc)/Ventres of Garlot(h)
            • Who married Elaine of Tintagel/Garlot(h) — (Who may be the same person as this Morgan)
            • By whom he sired Sir Galeshin
        3. Mari-Morgan(s)
          1. Also known as Morgan(s)/Morgen(s)/(Mori-genā)/(sea born)
          2. A type/class of Welsh and Breton water-fairy
          3. One called either Ahes or Dahut was held responsible for the destruction of the legendary city of Ys
        4. Morgan Tud(d)/(shade/gloom/vapour)/(tuath)/(north/left)/(sinister/wicked)/(fairy/fay/elf)
          1. Arthur’s chief physician in the Welsh Gereint/Geraint fab/filius Erbin (Gereint, son of Erbin)
          2. Morgan treated Arthur’s warriors, including Edern/Yder and Geraint
          3. The author may have simply confused the gender of Morgan Le Fay
        5. Morgan Mwynfawr — The owner of a magical form of transport, described as either a chair or a car
          1. Which could carry a person seated in it
          2. To wherever he or she wanted to go
          3. Known as Cadair N(e)u Kar/Car Morgan Mwynfawr
          4. It numbered among the “Thirteen” Treasures of Britain
          5. Some commentators have incorrectly sought to identify the ownership
          6. Of this enchanted mode of travel with Morgan Le Fay
      4. Comparison/Relationship of Other Similar Queens/Empresses/Goddesses to Morgan le Fay
        1. Introduction to the Comparison/Relationship of Other Similar Queens/Empresses/Goddesses to Morgan le Fay
        2. Development of The Morrigan/Mórrigan
          1. Introduction to the Development of The Morrigan/Mórrigan
          2. From the Greek Μητέρα/Mātéra/(mother)
            • Graces (Χάριτες/Charites, Gratiae)
              • Aglaea/Aglaïa (Beauty, Splendor, Brilliant, Shining One)
              • Euphrosyne/Euthymia (Joy, Mirth, Grace, Beauty)
              • Thalia (Good Cheer, Abundance, Festivity, Rich Banquets)
            • Fates: the Μοĩραι/Moirai/(apportioners)
              • Clotho — Spinner — Spun the thread of life from her distaff onto her spindle
              • Lachesis — Allotter — Measured the thread of life with her rod
              • Atropos/Aisa — Unturnable — Cut the thread of life — Chose the manner of a person’s death
            • Norns/Nornir – Norse Fates
              • Urðr/Wyrd – past
              • Verðandi – present
              • Skuld – future
            • Horae/Ὧραι/Hōrai/Horai/Hours/Seasons/ [3, 6, 2, 9, 4, 9, 10, 12]
          3. In Ireland
            • The Erinyes
              • Alekto/endless/untameable
              • Megaera/(jealous rage)/grudging
              • Tisiphone/Tilphousia/(vengeful destruction)
            • Mirrors of the Nornir:
              • The Fylgjur/(to accompany)
              • The Hamingjur/(luck and happiness)
              • The Valkyrjur/(chooser of the slain)
            • Vestigially influenced by the Muses as water nymphs
              • From the four sacred springs of Mount Helicon in Boeotia
              • Daughters of Pierus/Pieris and a Pimpleian nymph, named Antiope
                     — Neilṓ (Νειλώ)
                     — Tritṓnē (Τριτώνη)
                     — Asōpṓ (Ἀσωπώ)
                     — Heptápora (Ἑπτάπορα)
                     — Achelōís (Ἀχελωίς)
                     — Tipoplṓ (Τιποπλώ)
                     — Rhodía (Ῥοδία)
            • And by the Irish Goddess Muirgen (sea born)
            • And by Muirgein
              • A Christian shape-shifting female saint
              • Who was associated with the sea
          4. Changing over time into The Nine Morrígna
            • The daughters of Delbáeth/Bith/Bitu/(world/life/age) and his wife Ernmas/Birren
            • “Maidens” — c 3065 BC Sumerian
              • (É(i)riu/Eire)/(Alba/Balva/(british)) — Wife of Ladra mac Gréine (grandson of the Dagda)
              • (Fótla/Fódla/Fod(h)la)/(Ba(i)rr(fh)ind/Barrann/Burran(/Birren)) — Wife of Bith mac Cecht
              • Banb(h)a/(Ces(s)air/Ceasair/Kesair) — Alchemist — Wife of Fintán (son of Bóchra and Cuill)
            • “Mothers” — 2334 BC Oetzi/Belgae admixture
              • Nem(h)ain
              • Danu/Dana/Anu/An(n)a/An(n)an(n)(d)
              • Fea
            • “Matrons” — 1287 BC Scythian/Egyptian/Basque/Celtiberian
              • Badbh
              • Macha
              • The Morrigan/Mórrigan
                     — An Irish Crow-Goddess of War
                     — Incorrectly identified with Morgan le Fay by Lewis Spence and by many many others
                     — There are few similarities between the two, beyond the spelling of their names
            • Late influence by the Nine Muses [9, 3, 1, 3(, 4, 5, 7)]
              • 626/625 BC
              • “Maidens”
                     — Eratṓ (Ἐρατώ)
                               “desired”, “lovely”, “beloved”
                               Lyric/Love Poetry
                               Cithara Lyre, Rose Crown
                     — Terpsichore (Τερψιχόρη)
                               “one who delights in dancing”
                               Choral Dance/Song
                               Dancing, Lyre, Plectrum
                     — Calliope (Καλλιόπη)
                               “beautiful-voiced”
                               Epic Poetry
                               Writing Tablet, Stylus, Lyre
              • “Mothers”
                     — Thalia (Θάλεια/Θαλία)
                               “joyous, flourishing”, “rich festivity”, “blooming”
                               Comedy, Pastoral Poetry
                               Comic Mask, Crook, Ivy Wreath
                     — Melpomene/Melpomeni (Μελπομένη)
                               “singer”, “to sing”, “the one that is melodious”
                               “to celebrate with dance and song”
                               Tragedy
                               Tragic Mask, Sword, Club, Kothornos Boots
                     — Poly(hy)mnia (Πολυύμνια/Πολύμνια)
                               “the one of many hymns”, “praise”
                               Hymns, Sacred Poetry, Agriculture
                               Veil, Grapes
              • “Matrons”
                     — Euterpe (Εὐτέρπη)
                               “the giver of much delight”, “rejoicing well”
                               Music/Song, Lyric/Elegy Poetry
                               Aulos, Panpipes, Laurel Wreath
                     — Clio/Kleio (Κλειώ)
                               “to make famous”, “made famous”, “celebrate”
                               History
                               Scrolls, Books, Cornet, Laurel Wreath
                     — Urania/Ourania (Οὐρανία)
                               “the heavenly”, “of heaven”
                               Astronomy
                               Celestial Globe, Compass Pair
        3. Development of Morgan le Fay
          1. Introduction to the Development of Morgan le Fay
          2. Parallel
            • On the continent
            • Within the tribes of the true Celts
            • Eventually through a Breton filter
            • Gaulish Mātīr/(mother)
          3. Becoming Matres/Matrae and Matrones/Matrōna(e)
            • First Century AD
            • Divine Mother Goddesses — Fates/Dísir
              • Ghosts
              • Spirits
              • Deities associated with fate
            • Divine Matron(s)
          4. Then Deae Matres and Deae Matrōnae
            • First Century AD
            • Divine Mother Goddesses
            • Divine Matrons
          5. Deae Matrōnae became Dea Matrōna/(divine (mother/matron) goddess)
          6. Both (Dea Matrōna)/(divine mother goddess) and Mātronā/(great mother)
            • Second Century AD
            • Had a consort: ?Death?/(?Horned Creature?)/?Cernunnos?
            • A son: Maponos/Maponus
          7. In Wales, through Mātronā/(great mother) to Modron/Mydron/(mother)
            • Fourth Century AD
            • Had a consort: Meldos/Melld/Mellt/Mars Loucetios/Loucetius/Leucetius
            • A son: Mabon
            • Fifth Century AD – Modron’s consort: Gwron/Euron/Uironos
            • c AD 555 — Modron’s consort became Urien Rheged
              • Twin son and daughter
              • Owain and Morfudd/Morfydd
          8. Alongside the Welsh and Breton Mari-Morgan(s)/Morgan(s)/Morgen(s)/(sea born)
          9. Mirroring the group of nine virgin priestesses
            • By AD 565
            • The Gallizenae
            • Already living on the Ile de Sein/Sena
            • Existed since before 1287 BC
            • Information of their existence written c AD 43/44
            • Adapted in AD 1150
          10. Influenced by Deisi beliefs of Muirgen, in what is now Southwestern Wales
          11. Equating the Irish Muirgen (and possibly Muirgein)
            • With the Welsh Murigen/?Morgan?/(lake born)
            • With the Welsh/Breton Mari-Morgan(s)/Morgan(s)/Morgen(s)/(sea born)
          12. Mixing in the Roman Fata/Fates — Parcae
            • Morta
            • Decima
            • Nona
          13. A very late influence of the Nine Muses [9, 3, 1, 3(, 4, 5, 7)]
            • “Matrons”
              • Urania/Ourania (Οὐρανία)
                     — “the heavenly”, “of heaven”
                     — Astronomy
                     — Celestial Globe, Compass Pair
              • Clio/Kleio (Κλειώ)
                     — “to make famous”, “made famous”, “celebrate”
                     — History
                     — Scrolls, Books, Cornet, Laurel Wreath
              • Euterpe (Εὐτέρπη)
                     — “the giver of much delight”, “rejoicing well”
                     — Music/Song, Lyric/Elegy Poetry
                     — Aulos, Panpipes, Laurel Wreath
            • “Mothers”
              • Poly(hy)mnia (Πολυύμνια/Πολύμνια)
                     — “the one of many hymns”, “praise”
                     — Hymns, Sacred Poetry, Agriculture
                     — Veil, Grapes
              • Melpomene/Melpomeni (Μελπομένη)
                     — “singer”, “to sing”, “the one that is melodious”
                     — “to celebrate with dance and song”
                     — Tragedy
                     — Tragic Mask, Sword, Club, Kothornos Boots
              • Thalia (Θάλεια/Θαλία)
                     — “joyous, flourishing”, “rich festivity”, “blooming”
                     — Comedy, Pastoral Poetry
                     — Comic Mask, Crook, Ivy Wreath
            • “Maidens”
              • Calliope (Καλλιόπη)
                     — “beautiful-voiced”
                     — Epic Poetry
                     — Writing Tablet, Stylus, Lyre
              • Terpsichore (Τερψιχόρη)
                     — “one who delights in dancing”
                     — Choral Dance/Song
                     — Dancing, Lyre, Plectrum
              • Eratṓ (Ἐρατώ)
                     — “desired”, “lovely”, “beloved”
                     — Lyric/Love Poetry
                     — Cithara Lyre, Rose Crown
          14. Emerging as the Nine Sisters of Avalon (in Vita Merlini by Geoffrey of Monmouth)
            • “Matrons”
              • Morgen/Mori-genā/(sea born)/(shore of the sea)/(song of the sea)
              • Moronoe/Morgeneu/(Japanese: もろの絵)/(Moro no e)/(picture of the Moro)/(mouth of the sea)
              • Mazoe/Maswy/Moroe/(sportive)/(wanton)
            • “Mothers”
              • Gliten/(Middle High German: “to glide”)/(German: “to shine to be bright” — Gliten-an)/Gliorn
              • Glitonea/(tragedy)
              • Gliton/Cliton/Cliten/Gliten
            • “Maidens”
              • Tyron(o)e/Tireneu/Tythonoe/(mouth of the earth)
              • Thiten/Thitis/Tythen
              • (Thiten known for her zither/cither/cithara lyre)/Thiton/Tithen/(Thitis with her lyre)/Thetis/(Ombite known for stringed instruments)
          15. Finalising as (Morgan le Fay)/(The Fa(ir)y born of the Sea)
            • By AD 574/575
            • Replacing Modron
              • As a mother Goddess
              • As the wife of Urien(s)/(Urience) of Gor(r)e
            • Sons
              • Ywain/Yvain/Ewain/Uwain/(Owain)
              • Rhiwallon
              • Rhun
              • Pasgen
            • Her sisters
              • Margawse/Morgose/Morgause
                     — In Sir Thomas Malory’s Le Morte d’Arthur
                     — As Anna, in Historia Regum Britanniae (History of Kings of Britain) by Geoffrey of Monmouth
                     — (M)orc(h)ad(e)s
                               As Orcades, in the First Continuation of Chrétien’s Perceval by Wauchier Denain (Gauchier of Donaing)
                               As Morcades, in Les Enfances Gauvain (The Youth of Gawain), & in Diu Crône (The Crown) by Heinrich von dem Türlin
                     — As Sangive, in Parzival (Perceval) by Wolfram von Eschenbach
                     — As Siefe, in Garel von dem blühenden Tal (Garel of the Blossoming Valley) by Der Pleier (of the nurse)
                     — As Belisent, in Arthour and Merlin (Arthur and Merlin)
                     — As Gwyar/(gore)
              • Elaine
                     — As Clarine
                     — As Blasine
    3. Beginnings
      1. Introduction to Beginnings
      2. Family
        1. Introduction to Family
        2. Father — Duke Gorloïs
        3. Mother — Igraine
        4. Sisters
          1. Margawse/Morgose/Morgause/Anna/(M)orc(h)ades/Sangive/Siefe/Belisent/Gwyar
          2. Elaine/Clarine/Blasine/(Morgan) of Tintagel/Garlot(h)
        5. Half-Sister — Morgan/(Elaine)
        6. Half-Brother — Arthur
        7. Husband — King Urien(s)/(Urience) of Gor(r)e
          1. The historical Urien had a treacherous ally named Morcant Bulc
          2. Who plotted to assassinate him
            • Similar to how Morgan le Fay attempts to kill Urien
            • In the later version of Arthurian myth
        8. Daughter — Nivetta
        9. Sons
          1. (Ywain(e) (le Blanchemains))/Yvonet/Ewain/Uwain(e)/(Owein/Owain)
          2. Rhiwallon
          3. Rhun
          4. Pasgen
        10. Husband’s bastard son — Owein/Owain/Yvain/Yvonet/Ewain/Uwain(e) ap Urien, the/li/les Bastard/Adulterer/Adventurous/Avoutres
        11. Brothers-in-law
          1. King (Llew/Lug(h))/(L(i)ot(h) Luwddoc) of (Lothian) and Orkney (m Margawse/Morgose/Morgause)
          2. King Nentres/Nante(r)(s)/Na(n)tres/Neutres/(Nextres de Garloc)/Ventres (m Elaine/(Morgan))
        12. Nephews
          1. By Margawse/Morgose/Morgause
            • Gawain
            • Agravaine
            • Gaheris
            • Mordred
          2. By Elaine/(Morgan) — Galeshin
        13. Grandson(?) — Ider
        14. Lovers
          1. Gui(ng)omar/Guinguemar/Guimoar
            • Guenevere’s cousin
            • The Lord of the Isle of Avalon/Avilion
          2. Accolon of Gaul
          3. Hemison
          4. Merlin
        15. Lover’s (Accolon’s) cousin — Manassen
        16. Allies
          1. Queen of Eastland?
          2. Queen of Norgales
          3. Queen of the Out Isles?
          4. Queen of the Waste Lands?
          5. Sebile
          6. King Mark?
          7. Breuse Sans Pitie?
          8. Malgrin?
        17. Protegé(?) — Oriolz the Dane (Oriel de Sorionde)
      3. Maleficent and Beneficent
        1. Early works featuring Morgan le Fay
          1. Do not elaborate her character beyond her role
          2. As a fay or sorceress
        2. She became both more prominent and morally ambivalent in later texts
          1. In particular in cyclical prose works
            • Such as the (Vulgate Cycle)/(Lancelot-Grail (Cycle))/(Prose Lancelot)/(the Pseudo-Map Cycle)
            • And the Post-Vulgate Cycle
          2. In which she turns into a dangerous enemy of King Arthur
          3. Antagonist in some tales
        3. Morgan le Fay becomes
          1. An apprentice of Merlin
          2. A vindictive adversary of Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table
          3. With a special hatred for his wife Queen Guinevere
        4. She is also wanton and sexually aggressive, with many lovers
          1. Including Merlin
          2. Accolon
          3. An unrequited love for Lancelot
        5. Morgan le Fay is an indirect instrument of Arthur’s death
          1. Though she eventually reconciles with him
          2. Retains her original role
            • Serving as one of the sorcerous queens
            • Who take him on his final journey to Avalon/Avilion
    4. Birth, Childhood, and Adolescence
      1. Introduction to Birth, Childhood, and Adolescence
      2. One of three or nine daughters
        1. According to Malory, Morgan le Fay was the youngest of three sisters
        2. Geoffrey of Monmouth has Morgen as the oldest of nine sisters
      3. Half-sister of Arthur
      4. When Igraine (widow of Gorloïs) was wed to Uther
        1. Her daughters Margawse and Elaine of Tintagel/Garlot(h) wed Kings Lot(h) and Nentres/Nante(r)(s)/Na(n)tres/Neutres/(Nextres de Garloc)/Ventres
        2. According to Malory
          1. Morgan le Fay was put to school in a nunnery
          2. Where “she learned so much that she was a great clerk of necromancy”
        3. Later
          1. Morgan le Fay was married to King Urien(s)/(Urience) of Gore
          2. To whom she bore (Ywain(e) (le Blanchemains))/Yvain/Ewain/Uwain/(Owein/Owain)
          3. Owain mab Urien is the historical figure behind this son
    5. Adulthood
      1. Introduction to Adulthood
      2. After being an early rebel
        1. Urien(s)/Urience came over to Arthur
        2. Was made a companion of the Round Table
        3. Urien(s)/Urience
          1. Along with his wife and son
          2. Seems to have spent much time in Arthur’s court
      3. At first, in the early days, Morgan le Fay and Guinevere were friends
        1. Guinevere gave almost identical rings
          1. To Morgan le Fay
            • Her ring differing from Lancelot’s
            • Only in the engraving of the stone
          2. Later a similar ring to Lancelot
        2. Morgan le Fay took Gui(ng)omar/Guinguemar/Guimoar
          1. A cousin of Guinevere’s
          2. For a lover
        3. Finding them together
          1. The angry Guinevere banished Gui(ng)omar/Guinguemar/Guimoar
          2. Morgan fled to Merlin
            • Learned (or increased her earlier knowledge of) necromancy
            • Hated Guinevere ever afterward
        4. This incident is recorded in Vulgate Queste del Saint Graal (Quest of the Holy Grail)
        5. May refer to the same period mentioned in Vulgate Suite du Merlin
          1. When Morgan le Fay met Merlin in Bedingran/Bedegraine
          2. At the time of the knighting of Gawain and his brothers
        6. While never showing Morgan le Fay in person
          1. Chrétien de Troyes refers to her rather more than to Merlin
          2. In Érec et Énide (Erec and Enide)
            • Chrétien identifies Morgan le Fay as Arthur’s sister
            • Mentions that Gui(ng)omar (Lord of the Isle of Avalon) is her lover
            • Describes a salve she made for her brother
              • If applied once a day
              • It effectively heals any wound within a week
          3. In Yvain, or Le Chevalier au Lion (Owain, or The Knight with the Lion)
            • “Morgan the Wise”
            • Has given the Lady of Noroison an ointment
            • That cures madness
          4. Both these preparations — assuming that they are two separate preparations
          5. Show Morgan le Fay in her beneficent aspect
          6. There is no reference in Chrétien’s works to her as a villain
      4. Eventually returning to Arthur’s court
        1. Morgan le Fay took a new lover, Sir Accolon of Gaul
        2. With whom she plotted the deaths of both Arthur and Urien(s)/Urience
        3. Planning to put Accolon and herself on the throne of Britain
        4. The scheme was thwarted by Nimue
        5. On learning of Accolon’s death at Arthur’s hands, some distance from court
        6. Morgan le Fay attempted at least to murder her sleeping husband
          1. Surprisingly, by the natural means of a sword
          2. But was prevented by their son Ywain(e)/Yvain/Ewain/Uwain/(Owein/Owain)
        7. Gaining Ywaine’s promise of secrecy on her own pledge of future good behaviour
          1. Morgan le Fay received Guinevere’s permission to leave court
          2. Pretending urgent business at home
        8. Morgan le Fay stopped at the nunnery where Arthur lay wounded
          1. Stole the Scabbard of Excalibur
          2. The sword she could not get because Arthur was sleeping with it
        9. Pursued by Arthur
          1. Morgan le Fay threw the scabbard into a deep lake
          2. Then changed herself and her men into stones to escape capture
        10. Their danger past
          1. Morgan le Fay saved Sir Manassen, a cousin of Accolon’s, from enemies
          2. Sent him back to Arthur to tell how cleverly she had eluded him
      5. Morgan le Fay returned to Gore and garrisoned her castles in preparation for attack
        1. Nor was the precaution groundless
        2. For Malory mentions Arthur’s attempt
          1. To win back at least one castle
          2. That Arthur himself had given Morgan le Fay in friendlier times
      6. Soon after Morgan le Fay’s return to Gore
        1. When Arthur met her Damsel in Sir Damas’ castle
          1. Masquerading as Damas’ daughter
          2. Arthur thought he recognised her as a damsel he had seen around his own court
        2. Perhaps she could be identified with the damsel
          1. Who brought Arthur Morgan’s gift of a rich poisoned mantle
          2. Set with precious stones, ostensibly as a peace-offering
        3. Nimue, who was perhaps also acquainted with Greek tragedy
          1. Warned Arthur not to wear it
          2. Or let any of his knights wear it
          3. Unless Morgan le Fay’s messenger wore it first
            • Arthur made the reluctant damsel messenger try it on
            • It immediately burned her to coals
      7. After the episode of the poisoned mantle (Morgan le Fay’s Mantle)
        1. Morgan’s efforts against Arthur
          1. Seem almost entirely directed at forcing him
          2. To recognise the love of Lancelot and Guinevere
        2. Sir Bertilak de Hautdesert remarked to Gawain
          1. That the affair of the Green Knight’s beheading game
          2. Had been staged by Morgan le Fay to shock Guinevere to death
            • An explanation which we may take figuratively
            • If not with a grain of salt
        3. In Sir Gawaine and the Green Knight
          1. Morgan le Fay appears as an extremely old woman
          2. This is curious, for here, as in Malory, she is Gawain’s aunt
          3. Gawain, like Arthur and the rest of his court, is still quite young
          4. Igraine must either be granted a remarkably long period of childbearing
            • If Morgan le Fay has naturally attained her great age in this work
            • Or Malory more likely reversed the order of birth for the three sisters
            • Rightfully being Morgan le Fay, Margawse, and Elaine
            • Morgan le Fay could give Bertilak the appearance of the Green Knight
            • So she could have given herself the appearance of any age she wished
        4. Guinevere may well have continued to resent the fact that
          1. After raising such a fuss
            • About her friend Morgan le Fay’s affair
            • With Gui(ng)omar/Guinguemar/Guimoar
          2. Guinevere proceeded to enjoy a long, adulterous liaison of her own with Lancelot
        5. Although a shield was made by Morgan le Fay
          1. There no indication that Morgan le Fay’s Shield was magical in itself
          2. Its field was golden
          3. With a king and a queen therein painted
          4. A knight standing above them
            • One foot upon the king’s head
            • The other upon the queen’s
        6. Morgan made Tristan carry this shield in the tournament at the Castle of the Hard Rock
          1. The device signified Arthur, Guinevere, and Lancelot
          2. Although Morgan le Fay would not tell Tristan who the painted knight was
        7. Morgan le Fay’s Drinking Horn
          1. This magical drinking horn
            • “harnessed with gold”
            • Could only be used in safety by ladies who were true to their husbands
          2. If the drinker were false to her husband all the drink would spill
          3. Morgan le Fay could not herself have honestly drunk from the drinking horn
            • She sent this horn to Arthur
            • In another attempt to publicise Guinevere’s unfaithfulness
              • But Sir Lamorak stopped the messenger
              • Made him take it to King Mark instead
          4. Of a hundred ladies in Mark’s court
            • Including (La Beale Isoud)/Isolde
            • Only four could drink cleanly
          5. To the credit of the men
            • When the angered King Mark swore to burn Isoud/Isolde
            • And the other shamed ladies
              • The barons gathered them together
              • Said plainly they would not have those ladies burnt
                     — For an horn made by sorcery
                     — That came from a sorceress and witch
          6. For that horn did never good, but caused strife and debate
          7. Always in Morgan le Fay’s days, she had been an enemy to all true lovers
          8. So there were many knights made their avow
            • An ever they met with Morgan le Fay
            • That they would show her short courtesy
      8. Morgan le Fay was eventually forced to vacate Gore
        1. Rather than run afoul of her husband
        2. Or his deputy King Bagdemagus
      9. She owned, acquired, or usurped
        1. More than one castle outside Gore
        2. From which she could operate
      10. Morgan le Fay’s last known lover was Sir Hemison
        1. Whom she mourned deeply
        2. Buried richly when he was slain by Tristan
      11. She tried to make
        1. Alisander le Orphelin her paramour
        2. More than once, Sir Lancelot
      12. Morgan le Fay seems to have had her lovers one at a time
        1. Taking a new one
        2. Only some while after the former one was slain
        3. Or otherwise lost
      13. With Lancelot, she seems to have had a special love-hate relationship
        1. Malory records one instance of Morgan le Fay kidnapping Lancelot
          1. Acting in concert with her companions at the time
          2. The queens of Norgales, Eastland, and the Out Isles
        2. The Vulgate records other occasions when Morgan le Fay got Lancelot into her power
          1. She hated Lancelot because Guinevere loved him
          2. Because he loved Guinevere and repulsed Morgan’s own advances
        3. Whenever Morgan le Fay captured Lancelot, she tried to get him into her own bed
        4. As an example of one of their exchanges
          1. After Lancelot had saved Duke Rochedon’s Daughter
          2. Morgan conjured him by what he loved best to doff his helmet
          3. (This was probably not enchantment, but a rule of courtesy)
          4. When he unhelmed
            • She said that if she had known his identity before
            • Lancelot would not have escaped so easily
            • He replied that if Morgan le Fay were a man
            • He’d know how to deal with her
            • She responded that he would regret that comment
      14. Morgan le Fay seems to have been or had the reputation of being
        1. At the heart of some network of enchantresses and villains
          1. Once King Mark appealed to Morgan le Fay and the Queen of Norgales
          2. To set the country “in fire” with enchantresses and wicked knights
            • Like Malgrin
            • And Breuse Sans Pitie
        2. This suggests that there was such a network
        3. Or at least that Morgan le Fay and the Queen of Norgales wielded authority
          1. Over other necromancers
          2. And wicked men
        4. These same two are credited in Malory with putting a damsel into a scalding bath
      15. Morgan le Fay’s nephew Mordred may have served her at least for a time
      16. [Another instance of Morgan le Fay’s mischief may be found under (Val Sans Retour)/(Valley of No Return)]
      17. Kidnapping Lancelot after he had disenchanted her (Val Sans Retour)/(Valley of No Return)
        1. Morgan le Fay demanded the ring Guinevere had given him as a ransom
        2. When Lancelot refused, Morgan le Fay
          1. Resorted to drugging him
          2. Exchanging rings
      18. Lancelot did not notice the difference
        1. Morgan le Fay sent his ring to court
        2. With a “confession” apology
        3. Purportedly by Lancelot
          1. In another effort to uncover Guinevere’s unfaithfulness to Arthur
          2. Guinevere said she had given the ring to Lancelot, but honorably
          3. Arthur said he did not believe Morgan le Fay’s damsel
          4. Rather than lose Lancelot, Arthur would let Lancelot love the Queen
      19. Morgan le Fay, like Arthur, occasionally took the shape of a raven or crow
      20. (Morgan’s Castle)/(Chastel de Morgain)
        1. Morgan le Fay had at least two castles
        2. She may well have had even more, here and there about the country
        3. King Arthur gave Morgan le Fay a castle
          1. Later regretted his generosity
          2. But he never could win it from her again with any kind of siege engine
          3. She sent her knights out by one, two, and three
            • To overthrow Arthur’s knights
            • Imprison or at least strip them
          4. This castle appears to have been not too far from Camelot
            • Likely to the south
            • Toward Cornwall
          5. Were we to make it Ringwood in southwest Southampton
            • Make Beaulieu, not far from Ringwood, the castle of La Beale Regard
            • It would be easy to understand why Morgan would usurp La Beale Regard
            • “Ringwood” would not make a bad name for the castle of a sorceress
        4. According to the Vulgate Queste del Saint Graal (Quest of the Holy Grail)
          1. Morgan le Fay had a castle near the stronghold of Tauroc, Wales
          2. Which in turn must have been near Taneborc Castle at the entrance of Norgales
            • Once Arthur and his companions
            • While lost when hunting in the woods around Tauroc
            • Came to this Welsh castle of Morgan le Fay’s
            • This was late in Arthur’s career
            • He was surprised to find his half-sister yet alive
              • He had presumed her dead
              • Not having heard of her in some years
          3. Arthur found that her castle had
            • Silk-covered walls in the courtyard
            • Great splendor
            • Marvelous illumination within
            • Gold and silver dinner plates
              • Which he could not match
              • Even at Camelot
          4. Morgan le Fay had once imprisoned Lancelot in this castle
            • Putting him to sleep with drugged wine
              • She blew a curious powder into his nostrils through a silver tube
              • Thus taking away his senses for a time
              • Which made him quite content to remain with her
            • Lancelot did not lose his memory
              • Seeing a man paint the history of Aeneas
              • Lancelot was inspired to paint his own life
              • Around the walls of his room
            • He had beguild two winters and a summer
              • By painting his life’s history
              • Including scenes of his love for Guenevere
              • On the walls of his room
            • At the end of this time
              • A spring rose
              • In a garden Morgan le Fay had planted
                     — Outside his window
                     — For his enjoyment
              • Suddenly reminded him of Guinevere
              • So Lancelot
                     — Broke the iron bars of his window
                     — Plucked the rose
                     — Armed himself
                     — Kept on going
                     — The spell being broken
              • He spared Morgan le Fay
                     — On this occasion
                     — For the sake of her half-brother Arthur
    6. Endings
      1. Introduction to Endings
      2. Now retired to her castle near Tauroc, Wales
        1. Morgan le Fay lived quietly there for so long
        2. When Arthur had chanced upon her castle while hunting
        3. She welcomed him warmly
          1. On this occasion he spent a week visiting her
          2. The only attempt she made on his well-being
            • Was to show him the murals Lancelot
            • Had once painted while a prisoner in this castle
              • Which murals revealed his relations with Guinevere
              • Arthur refused to believe even this evidence
              • Invited his half-sister to Camelot
              • Morgan le Fay replied that she would never leave her castle
              • Until the time came for her to go to Avalon/Avilion
      3. Tirant Lo Blanc(h) continues this final favorable light
        1. Without allusion to Morgan le Fay’s villain aspect
        2. She appears dressed in black and searching diligently for her brother
          1. Finding him
          2. She rejoins
          3. In the ensuing celebration
            • It appears that dancing with her
            • Constitutes a signal honor for the knight
            • She chooses as her partner
      4. Despite her long role as antagonist to Arthur, Guinevere, and their court
        1. Morgan le Fay was the chief of the grieving ladies
        2. Who came to bear Arthur away to Avilion/Avalon after the last battle
          1. As Morganis,
            • In (Liber) de Principis Instructione
            • (On Instruction of Princes or Book of Early Instruction)
            • By Giraldus Cambrensis (Gerald of Wales)
          2. Morgan le Fay was a noblewoman cousin of King Arthur
            • Who carried him to her island of Avalon
            • Identified by Gerald as Glastonbury
            • Where Arthur was buried
          3. Gerald claimed that
            • as a result, the credulous Britons and their bards invented the legend
              that a fantastic sorceress had removed Arthur’s body to the Isle of Avalon,
              so that she might cure his wounds there
            • For the purpose of creating the possibility of King Arthur’s messianic return
    7. Appendices: Geography, Genealogy, and Timeline
      1. Geography of Morgan le Fay
      2. Genealogy of Morgan le Fay
      3. Timeline of Morgan le Fay
  3. Mordred, one of the Dark Mysteries of Logres
    1. Introduction to Mordred, one of the Dark Mysteries of Logres
    2. Meaning, Origin, Existence, and Comparison: Mordred’s Name, Multiple Mordreds, and Other Tricksters/(Anti)Heroes/Knights/Warriors/Rescuers/Gods
      1. Introduction to the Meaning, Origin, Existence, and Comparison:
                       Mordred’s Name, Multiple Mordreds, and Other Tricksters/(Anti)Heroes/Knights/Warriors/Rescuers/Gods
      2. Meaning and Origin of Mordred’s Name
        1. Introduction to the Meaning and Origin of Mordred’s Name
        2. Medrawt/Medraut/Medrawd/Medraud/Medrod
        3. Modreuant/Modrod/Modrot/Mordet/Mordarette/Moderatus/Mo(r)dret/Mordrech/Mordrés/Mord(d)rede/Mo(r)d(e)red(us)
      3. Existence of Multiple Mordreds
        1. Introduction to the Existence of Multiple Mordreds
        2. King
          1. One of Arthur’s knights
          2. In Renaut de Bâgé’s Le Bel Inconnu
          3. Fights in the Castle of Maidens’ tournament
          4. Is defeated by Guinglain (Gawain’s son)
          5. Has a brother named Segures
        3. Prince
        4. Legitimate Heir
      4. Comparison of Other Tricksters/(Anti)Heroes/Knights/Warriors/Rescuers/Gods to Mordred
        1. Introduction to the Comparison of Other Tricksters/(Anti)Heroes/Knights/Warriors/Rescuers/Gods to Mordred
        2. Mabon ap Modron
        3. Melwas
        4. Malagrant
        5. Dylan
        6. Mardoc
    3. Beginnings
      1. The Parentage of Mordred
        1. Mother
          1. Gwyar
          2. Anna/Anne
          3. Belisent
          4. a concubine
          5. an unnamed sister of Arthur
          6. Morgause/Margawse
          7. Morgan le Fay (only in some modern tales)
        2. Father
          1. Cawrdaf ap Caradog/Caradoc Freichfras ap Ynyr Honorius Brenin ap Dyfnwal Hen ap Ednyfed ap Anwn/Antonius Dynod/Donatus Gregorius
          2. (Lug(h) Lám(h)f(h)ada/Long Arm/Hand)/Llew(ddyn)/Lleu(ddun Llaw Gyffes)/(L(i)ot(h) Luwddoc/Luyddog/(Of the Host))
            • Son of Cian/Cein and Ethliu/Ethniu/Ethlenn/Ethnenn
            • Son of Gwydion/Gwydyon and Arianrhod
            • Son of Cadlew ap Cadell ap Decurion ap Cinis Scaplaut ap Lleu Hen ap Guid Gen ap Caradog ap Bran
          3. L(i)ot(h) Luwddoc of Lothian and Orkney
          4. Arthur (traditionally son of Uther and Igraine)
        3. (Foster-)Brother — son of (Duke) Nabur
          1. Segu(a)r(ad)es/Segwarides — or son of Esclabor
          2. Segramo(u)r(s)/Segremore(s)/S(e)ig(r)amor(e)/Seigremor/Sag(a)r(a)mo(u)r(e)/ Sa(i)gremo(i)r(e)(t)(s)/Sacremors/Sogremor/Sygramors
      2. Mordred’s Conception
      3. The Prophecy
        1. Merlin prophesied that Mordred
          1. Would grow up
          2. To kill King Arthur
        2. Arthur ordered that all male babies
          1. Of royal families
          2. Born on May Day
          3. Should be cast adrift in a boat
      4. Identification
        1. Only Mordred
          1. Was saved by (Duke) Nabur, an Orkney fisherman
          2. Survived the subsequent shipwreck
        2. At the age of fourteen Mordred was taken
          1. By (Duke) Nabur
          2. To King Arthur’s court
    4. Knighthood
      1. Knighted
      2. Travels with Lancelot
        1. Peningues Castle
        2. Kills Priest
        3. Lancelot’s Reaction
        4. Mass
        5. Tournament
    5. Camelot and Conflict
      1. Member of the Round Table
      2. Begins to Ravage
      3. Dark Side more Prominent
      4. Reveals Lancelot’s and Guinevere’s Betrayal
      5. Becomes Regent
    6. Endings
      1. Betrayal of Arthur
        1. Legitimate Heir
        2. Illegitimate Usurper
      2. Final Conflicts with Arthur
        1. Allies
          1. Saxons/Sesnes — headed by Arcaus/Archa(i)ns
          2. Irish
          3. Scottish — headed by Heliades
          4. Welsh
        2. Battle of Cam(b)lan(n)
          1. Mordred
            • Dies
            • Is buried
          2. Arthur
            • Dies and is Buried
            • Is taken to Avalon
              • Dies and is buried
              • Healed and awaits to return
      3. Mordred’s Legacy
        1. Wives
          1. Cywyllog
          2. Enfret/A(i)nfrid/Áinfean
          3. Ceridwen
          4. Gwenhwy(f)ach (sister of Gwenhwyfar/Guinevere)
          5. Gwenhwyfar/Guinevere
          6. Gwwthyr verch Arthur
        2. Sons
          1. Melehan
            • Killed King Lionel in the battle of Winchester
            • Was himself slain by Lionel’s brother, Bors
          2. unnamed — was killed by Lancelot
          3. Melou
          4. Myrrdin
          5. Arawn
        3. Daughter — Tortolina
    7. Appendices: Geography, Genealogy, and Timeline
      1. Geography of Mordred
      2. Genealogy of Mordred
      3. Timeline of Mordred
  4. Avalon, one of the Dark Mysteries of Logres
    1. Introduction to Avalon, one of the Dark Mysteries of Logres
    2. Meaning, Origin, Existence, and Comparison: The Name of Avalon, Multiple Avalons, and Other Legendary Islands and Idyllic Locations
      1. Introduction to the Meaning, Origin, Existence, and Comparison: The Name of Avalon, Multiple Avalons, and Other Legendary Islands and Idyllic Locations
      2. Meaning and Origin of the Name of Avalon
      3. Existence of Multiple Avalons — Isles/Islands of Fruit/Apple(s) (Trees)
        1. Introduction to the Existence of Multiple Avalons
        2. (The Isle of) Avalon
          1. Lile of Avelion/L’i(s)le of Avilion
          2. Avellenn/Avallo(n)(e)/Avalun/(Ynys Afallach)
          3. Amilion/Amylion/Amylyon
        3. Otherworld
          1. (Ynys Afallach)/(Isle of Afallach)/(Isle of Avallon)
          2. (Insula Pomorum)/(Isle of Apple(s) or Fruit (Trees))
          3. (Fortunatae Insulae)/(Fortunate Isle(s))
          4. (Abode of Heroes)/(Isle of (Blessed) Souls)
          5. Annw(y)n/Annwfn
        4. Isle of Man
          1. (Ynys (yr) Abal(l)o(n)(e))/Afal(l)on(n)/(Ynys Afallach)/(Ynys Avallach)/(Avallach’s Island)/(Isle of Avallach)
          2. Avalloc/((Emain) Ab(h)lach)/(Emain of the apples)/(Rapid Stream having Apple Trees)
        5. Glastonbury
          1. Nomenclature
            • (Ynys Afallach)/(The Island of Apples)
            • Ineswitrin/(Ynys Witrin)/(Ynys Gutrin)
            • Glastingebury
            • Valleys of Avaron
            • (Insula Avallonis)/((Insula) Aval(l)onia(e))/Avallo
          2. Events
            • In AD 63, Joseph of Arimathea supposedly brought the Holy Grail and planted his Holy Flowering Thorn there
            • In AD 1191, Monks of its abbey claimed that Glastonbury itself was Avalon
            • As Arthur’s last earthly destination, where he died and was buried
            • The Monks announced that they had exhumed Arthur and his wife, Guinevere
            • Together with a cross bearing the island’s name in the form Avalonia
            • Perhaps a third body was found, that of Mordred
            • In AD 1278, the remains were reburied, before the High Altar, with a great ceremony that was attended by King Edward I and his queen
            • Later, a number of former knights gathered as hermits around Arthur’s grave
            • The graves were the focus of pilgrimages until the Reformation
            • The bodies had gone missing by the sixteenth century AD
        6. Aballava/Avalana (Burgh-by-Sands, Cumbria)
        7. Appledore, Cornwall
        8. I(s)le Aval, Brittany
        9. Aballo(ne)/Avallon, Burgundy
        10. Assysla
        11. (Ne)Meta(m)bal(l)a/(Nemeto Anvalo(s))/(Nemeton of the Apple Trees)/(The Sacred Apple-Grove) in Gloucestershire
          1. Lydney Park
          2. a Nemeton near Uley Bury
      4. Comparison of Other Legendary Islands and Idyllic Locations to Avalon
        1. Introduction to the Comparison of Other Legendary Islands and Idyllic Locations to Avalon
        2. Lady of the Lake’s Abode
        3. Lyonesse
        4. Ys
        5. Corbenic/Corbin/Carbonek
        6. Oileán/Oléron/Orelan/Ovelon
        7. (Tír na nÓg)/(Tír na hÓige)/(Tír Tairngire)/(Tír fo Thuinn)/(Mag Mell)/Ildathach
        8. Heaven
        9. Nirvana
        10. Fairyland
        11. Annw(y)n/Annwfn/(Ynys Afallach)/(Isle of Afallach)/(Caer Wydyr)/Ineswitrin/(Ynys Witrin)/(Ynys Gutrin)/(the Fort of Glass)/(Isle of Glass)
          1. The nine maidens of Annwyn
          2. Who kept a magic cauldron
        12. Finchory/Finca(y)ra/Fianchuivé
        13. Hyperborea
        14. El Dorado
        15. Zion
        16. Eden
          1. Earthly Paradise
            • Mediterranean
            • Mount Amara
            • Equator/(The Torrid Zone)
            • Orient
            • “Beyond the Land of Prester John”
          2. Heavenly Paradise
        17. Sannikov Land
        18. Uttarakuru
        19. Lukomorye
        20. Iona
        21. Scilly Isles
        22. Ile de Sein/Sena
          1. Group of nine virgin priestesses actually living there — The Gallizenae
          2. Their abilities included
            • Curing the sick
            • Foretelling the future
            • Controlling the weather
            • Assuming animal disguises
        23. Garden of the Hesperides
        24. Asgard
        25. Valhalla
        26. Glaisisvellir
        27. The Antipodes
        28. The Canaries
        29. Sicily
        30. India
        31. Aghartha
        32. Brittia
        33. Doggerland
        34. Fositesland
        35. Tol Eressëa
        36. Thule
        37. Magerøya
        38. Atlantis
        39. Lemuria
        40. Mu
        41. Antillia
        42. Hy-Brasil
        43. Iram of the Pillars
        44. Mayda
        45. Saint Brendan’s (Island)/(Land of Repromission)
        46. Sandy Island
        47. Baltia
        48. Shambhala
        49. Beyu
        50. Ilé-Ifè
        51. Kitezh
        52. Sagala
        53. Shangri-La
        54. Arcadia
        55. Cockaigne
        56. Mahoroba
        57. Peach Blossom Spring
        58. Skardu
        59. Xanadu/Shangdu
    3. Beginnings
      1. Rulers of “Avalon”
        1. Introduction to the Rulers of “Avalon”
        2. Manannán/Manawydan mac/(m)ap/fab Allód/Le(a)r/Lir/Llŷr, son of Cassivellaunus/Cassivellaunos/Cas(s)wal(l)a(w)n/Caswal(l)on, son of Beli Mawr
          1. Irish/Welsh Sea-God
          2. Ruling over an Elysian Otherworld isle
        3. King Afallach/Avalloc/Avallach/Aballac/Abalech/Amalech/Amalach/Auallach/Evalac(h)/Evelake
          1. Originally a God
          2. Son of (one of the following)
            • Beli
              • Beli Mawr/Beli(m)/Bel(in)(us) (Sun God, the “Fair Shining One” or “The Shining God”), son of Manogan/Monnogan and Anna
              • Beli(m)/Heli ap Brân/Bron/Bendigeidfran/(Brân Fendigaidd)/(Blessed Crow) (and Anna/Enygeus) ap Allód/Le(a)r/Lir/Llŷr
            • L(l)ud(d)/(Nudd Llaw Ereint)/(Nuada Airgetlám)/Nudens/Nodens/Nodons (God of Healing, the Sea, Hunting, & Dogs), son of Beli Mawr
            • Amalech/Amalach/Aballac [which may be a duplication of Afallach/etc]
          3. Lived there with his daughters (was the father of Modron and/or Gwallwen)
          4. Father of Owain and/or Euddolen
        4. Queen Morgen/Morganis/(Morgan le Fay)/Dioneta
          1. Derivative from the RomanoGallic Matres/Matrae (which have relation to the Muses and the Fates)
          2. Through a “Celtic” Goddess (Mātronā/Modron)
          3. Skilled in the Seven Arts
          4. A kindly enchantress heading a sisterhood of nine healers
            • Morgen
            • Moronoe
            • Mazoe
            • Gliten
            • Glitonea
            • Gliton
            • Tyronoe
            • Thiten
            • Cithara known Thiten
        5. Guingamuer/Guingomar/Guinguemar — Morgan’s Lover
        6. Fairy Queen Argante
        7. Queen Enfeidas (A Goddess) — Sister of Uther, as Arthur’s aunt
        8. Sorceress Escorducarla, the Lady of Vallone — Dama del Isola di Vallone (on “Avalon” located in the Soriano Sea)
        9. King Bangon
        10. King Oberon
        11. King Ogier the Dane
      2. Attributes and Description
        1. An island or valley(s)
        2. Associated from an early date with mystical practices and people
          1. An abode of departed spirits (spirit world)
          2. Otherworld — Isle of (Blessed) Souls
          3. Earthly Paradise
          4. Home of fairies
        3. The island lies in the centre of a great lake
          1. Still waters gleam like blue steel
          2. Surrounded by dark forests
        4. A hero slain/severely injured in battle must find his painful way
          1. Through these forests until he reaches the shores of the lake
          2. Where a boat, draped in black cloth, awaits him (with a mysterious woman sitting silently at the helm)
        5. The boat glides across to the island
          1. Without causing a ripple on the still waters
          2. As it approaches Avalon the hero’s gaping wounds become whole again
        6. With all his manly vigour restored to him, he steps onto the beautiful island
          1. Where the sun always shines
          2. Rough weather is unknown
        7. Orchards of apple trees laden with glowing fruit rise up from the water’s edge
          1. Produces crops without cultivation
          2. Self-sowing grain
          3. Vines that flourish without tending
        8. The grass is like a soft green lawn beneath his feet
        9. Toward the centre of the island
          1. There are green silent forests with flowery glades
          2. Filled with such peace as men will never know on earth
        10. The hero wanders contentedly through the forest
        11. He slowly becomes aware of the other inhabitants of the island
          1. Who live for a century or more
          2. They are heroes, like himself, who have perished in the defence of the right, against the powers of darkness
          3. Together with a race of beautiful women, who are keepers of magic that inspires charity, courage, kindliness, and pure-hearted love
        12. (Christianised elaboration)
          1. In the depths of the forest there is a small church built by Joseph of Arimathea
          2. There the hero finds the supreme joy of worshipping the Creator
    4. Events in Avalon
      1. Arthur’s sword, “Excalibur”, was forged there
      2. Guinevere and Loholt died before Arthur, and were buried in Avalon
      3. Arthur was carried there after his last battle, Camlann
        1. In a boat/barge
          1. Piloted by Barinthus — An authority on seafaring, who also figures in the Irish tale of ‘St Brendan’s Voyage’
          2. In the company of four ladies including Morgan le Fay
        2. So that his wounds might be attended to
      4. In a palace/manor surrounded by pools and fruit-trees
        1. Morgan, a powerful sorceress, placed Arthur on a bed made of gold
        2. Examined his major wound
        3. Undertook to heal him if he would stay in Avalon for a long time under her care
        4. His youth is annually restored by visits of the Holy Grail
        5. Both enjoy immortality and perpetual youth
      5. Fate of Arthur
        1. Arthur would return to rule again (waking from a mystical/magical sleep)
        2. Or the great king died like any other man, and was buried
          1. In one story, a surgeon arrives from Salerno
          2. He fails to cure Arthur, who then dies
    5. Related Literature
      1. Pomponius Mela’s De situ orbis libri III (Description of the World, Three Books), or De chorographia libri III (Of Cosmography, Three Books)
      2. Isidore of Seville’s Etymologiae (Etymologies), XIV.6.8 “Fortunatae Insulae” (“Fortunate Island”)
      3. St Angus the Culdee’s Navigatio sancti Brendani abbatis (Voyage of St Brendan the Abbot)
      4. Preiddeu Annwfn (Spoils of Annwn)
      5. William of Malmesbury’s De antiquitae Glatoniensis ecclesie (On Antiquity of Glastonbury Church)
      6. Geoffrey of Monmouth’s Prophetiae/Libellus Merlini (Prophecy/Petition of Merlin)
      7. Geoffrey of Monmouth’s Historia Regum Britanniae (History of Kings of Britain)
      8. Geoffrey of Monmouth’s Vita Merlini (Life of Merlin)
      9. Robert Wace’s Roman de Brut (Romance of Brutus or A History of the British)
      10. Etienne de Rouen’s (Stephen of Rouen’s) Draco Normannicus (Norman Dragon)
      11. Chrétien de Troyes’ Érec et Énide (Eric and Enide)
      12. Robert de Boron’s Joseph d’Artimathe
      13. Giraldus Cambrensis’ (Gerald of Wales’) (Liber) de Principis Instructione (On Instruction of Princes or Book of Early Instruction)
      14. Perlesvaus or Li Hauz Livres du Graal (The High History of the Holy Grail)
      15. Layamon’s Brut (Brutus, or The Chronicle of Britain)
      16. (Li Romans de) Durmart le Gal(l)ois or Roman de Durmart
      17. Heinrich von dem Türlin’s Diu Crône (The Crown)
      18. Murder of Prince Arthur in The Chronicle of Margam Abbey
      19. Jehan’s Les Merveilles de Rigomer
      20. Floriant et Florete
      21. La Tavola Ritonda (The Round Table)
      22. Jean des Preis’/d’Outremeuse’s Ly Myreur des Histors (The Mirror of Histories)
      23. Guillem Torroella’s La Faula
      24. Bertrand du Guesclin’s Roman d’Ogier le Danois (Romance of Ogier the Dane)
      25. Alliterative Morte Arthure (Death of Arthur)
      26. Sir Thomas Malory’s Le Morte d’Arthur (The Death of Arthur)
    6. Appendices: Geography, Genealogy, and Timeline
      1. Geography of Avalon
      2. Genealogy of Avalon
      3. Timeline of Avalon

“There is more of Rome*, than of Romance, about Arthuriana”Glyn Hnutu-healh
 
*and Achaea, Akkad, Alans, Anglia, Arameans, Armorica, Assyria, Babylon, Briton, Cambria, Canaan, Cornwall, Crete, Cumbria, Dalriada, Domnonia, Egypt,
Etruscans, ExtraTerrestrials, France, Frisia, Gaul, Greece, Hindavi, Hittites, Huns, Hurrians, Idubor, Ireland, Judaea, Jutland, Lydia, Macedonia,
Mesopotamia, Mycenaea, Narts, Norse, Persia, Phoenicia, Phrygia, Picts, Saxony, Scotland, Semites, Sumer, Ugarit, and Wales — to name a few

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