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Morgan le Fay, Mordred, and Dwellers in Avalon:
Dark Mysteries of Logres

  1. Introduction to Morgan le Fay, Mordred, and Dwellers in Avalon: Dark Mysteries of Logres
  2. Morgan le Fay, one of the Dark Mysteries of Logres
  3. Mordred, one of the Dark Mysteries of Logres
    1. Introduction to Mordred, one of the Dark Mysteries of Logres
    2. Meaning, Origin, Existence, and Comparison: Mordred’s Name, Multiple Mordreds, and Other Tricksters/(Anti)Heroes/Deities
      1. Introduction to the Meaning, Origin, Existence, and Comparison: Mordred’s Name, Multiple Mordreds, and Other Tricksters/(Anti)Heroes/Deities
      2. Meaning and Origin of Mordred’s Name
        1. Introduction to the Meaning and Origin of Mordred’s Name
        2. Medrawt/Medraut/Medrawd/Medraud/Medrod
        3. Modreuant/Modrod/Modrot/Mordet/Mordarette/Moderatus/Mo(r)dret/Mordrech/Mordrés/Mord(d)rede/Mo(r)d(e)red(us)
      3. Existence of Multiple Mordreds
        1. Introduction to the Existence of Multiple Mordreds
        2. King
          1. One of Arthur’s knights
          2. In Renaut de Bâgé’s Le Bel Inconnu
          3. Fights in the Castle of Maidens’ tournament
          4. Is defeated by Guinglain (Gawain’s son)
          5. Has a brother named Segures
        3. Prince
        4. Legitimate Heir
      4. Comparison of Other Tricksters/(Anti)Heroes/Deities to Mordred
        1. Mabon ap Modron
        2. Melwas
        3. Malagrant
        4. Dylan
        5. Mardoc
    3. Beginnings
      1. The Parentage of Mordred
        1. Mother
          1. Gwyar
          2. Anna/Anne
          3. Belisent
          4. a concubine
          5. an unnamed sister of Arthur
          6. Morgause/Margawse
          7. Morgan le Fay (only in some modern tales)
        2. Father
          1. Cawrdaf ap Caradog/Caradoc Freichfras ap Ynyr Honorius Brenin ap Dyfnwal Hen ap Ednyfed ap Anwn/Antonius Dynod/Donatus Gregorius
          2. (Lug(h) Lám(h)f(h)ada/Long Arm/Hand)/Llew(ddyn)/Lleu(ddun Llaw Gyffes)/(L(i)ot(h) Luwddoc/Luyddog/(Of the Host))
            • Son of Cian/Cein and Ethliu/Ethniu/Ethlenn/Ethnenn
            • Son of Gwydion/Gwydyon and Arianrhod
            • Son of Cadlew ap Cadell ap Decurion ap Cinis Scaplaut ap Lleu Hen ap Guid Gen ap Caradog ap Bran
          3. L(i)ot(h) Luwddoc of Lothian and Orkney
          4. Arthur (traditionally son of Uther and Igraine)
        3. (Foster-)Brother — son of (Duke) Nabur
          1. Segu(a)r(ad)es/Segwarides — or son of Esclabor
          2. Segramo(u)r(s)/Segremore(s)/S(e)ig(r)amor(e)/Seigremor/Sag(a)r(a)mo(u)r(e)/ Sa(i)gremo(i)r(e)(t)(s)/Sacremors/Sogremor/Sygramors
      2. Mordred’s Conception
      3. The Prophecy
        1. Merlin prophesied that Mordred
          1. Would grow up
          2. To kill King Arthur
        2. Arthur ordered that all male babies
          1. Of royal families
          2. Born on May Day
          3. Should be cast adrift in a boat
      4. Identification
        1. Only Mordred
          1. Was saved by (Duke) Nabur, an Orkney fisherman
          2. Survived the subsequent shipwreck
        2. At the age of fourteen Mordred was taken
          1. By (Duke) Nabur
          2. To King Arthur’s court
    4. Knighthood
      1. Knighted
      2. Travels with Lancelot
        1. Peningues Castle
        2. Kills Priest
        3. Lancelot’s Reaction
        4. Mass
        5. Tournament
    5. Camelot and Conflict
      1. Member of the Round Table
      2. Begins to Ravage
      3. Dark Side more Prominent
      4. Reveals Lancelot’s and Guinevere’s Betrayal
      5. Becomes Regent
    6. Endings
      1. Betrayal of Arthur
        1. Legitimate Heir
        2. Illegitimate Usurper
      2. Final Conflicts with Arthur
        1. Allies
          1. Saxons/Sesnes — headed by Arcaus/Archa(i)ns
          2. Irish
          3. Scottish — headed by Heliades
          4. Welsh
        2. Battle of Cam(b)lan(n)
          1. Mordred
            • Dies
            • Is buried
          2. Arthur
            • Dies and is Buried
            • Is taken to Avalon
              • Dies and is buried
              • Healed and awaits to return
      3. Mordred’s Legacy
        1. Wives
          1. Cywyllog
          2. Enfret/A(i)nfrid/Áinfean
          3. Ceridwen
          4. Gwenhwy(f)ach (sister of Gwenhwyfar/Guinevere)
          5. Gwenhwyfar/Guinevere
          6. Gwwthyr verch Arthur
        2. Sons
          1. Melehan
            • Killed King Lionel in the battle of Winchester
            • Was himself slain by Lionel’s brother, Bors
          2. unnamed — was killed by Lancelot
          3. Melou
          4. Myrrdin
          5. Arawn
        3. Daughter — Tortolina
    7. Appendices: Geography, Genealogy, and Timeline
      1. Geography of Mordred
      2. Genealogy of Mordred
      3. Timeline of Mordred
  4. Avalon, one of the Dark Mysteries of Logres
    1. Introduction to Avalon, one of the Dark Mysteries of Logres
    2. Meaning, Origin, Existence, and Comparison: The Name of Avalon, Multiple Avalons, and Other Legendary Islands and Idyllic Locations
      1. Introduction to the Meaning, Origin, Existence, and Comparison: The Name of Avalon, Multiple Avalons, and Other Legendary Islands and Idyllic Locations
      2. Meaning and Origin of the Name of Avalon
      3. Existence of Multiple Avalons — Isles/Islands of Fruit/Apple(s) (Trees)
        1. Introduction to the Existence of Multiple Avalons
        2. (The Isle of) Avalon
          1. Lile of Avelion/L’i(s)le of Avilion
          2. Avellenn/Avallo(n)(e)/Avalun/(Ynys Afallach)
          3. Amilion/Amylion/Amylyon
        3. Otherworld
          1. (Ynys Afallach)/(Isle of Afallach)/(Isle of Avallon)
          2. (Insula Pomorum)/(Isle of Apple(s) or Fruit (Trees))
          3. (Fortunatae Insulae)/(Fortunate Isle(s))
          4. (Abode of Heroes)/(Isle of (Blessed) Souls)
          5. Annw(y)n/Annwfn
        4. Isle of Man
          1. (Ynys (yr) Abal(l)o(n)(e))/Afal(l)on(n)/(Ynys Afallach)/(Ynys Avallach)/(Avallach’s Island)/(Isle of Avallach)
          2. Avalloc/((Emain) Ab(h)lach)/(Emain of the apples)/(Rapid Stream having Apple Trees)
        5. Glastonbury
          1. Nomenclature
            • (Ynys Afallach)/(The Island of Apples)
            • Ineswitrin/(Ynys Witrin)/(Ynys Gutrin)
            • Glastingebury
            • Valleys of Avaron
            • (Insula Avallonis)/((Insula) Aval(l)onia(e))/Avallo
          2. Events
            • In AD 63, Joseph of Arimathea supposedly brought the Holy Grail and planted his Holy Flowering Thorn there
            • In AD 1191, Monks of its abbey claimed that Glastonbury itself was Avalon
            • As Arthur’s last earthly destination, where he died and was buried
            • The Monks announced that they had exhumed Arthur and his wife, Guinevere
            • Together with a cross bearing the island’s name in the form Avalonia
            • Perhaps a third body was found, that of Mordred
            • In AD 1278, the remains were reburied, before the High Altar, with a great ceremony that was attended by King Edward I and his queen
            • Later, a number of former knights gathered as hermits around Arthur’s grave
            • The graves were the focus of pilgrimages until the Reformation
            • The bodies had gone missing by the sixteenth century AD
        6. Aballava/Avalana (Burgh-by-Sands, Cumbria)
        7. Appledore, Cornwall
        8. I(s)le Aval, Brittany
        9. Aballo(ne)/Avallon, Burgundy
        10. Assysla
        11. (Ne)Meta(m)bal(l)a/(Nemeto Anvalo(s))/(Nemeton of the Apple Trees)/(The Sacred Apple-Grove) in Gloucestershire
          1. Lydney Park
          2. a Nemeton near Uley Bury
      4. Comparison of Other Legendary Islands and Idyllic Locations to Avalon
        1. Introduction to the Comparison of Other Legendary Islands and Idyllic Locations to Avalon
        2. Lady of the Lake’s Abode
        3. Lyonesse
        4. Ys
        5. Corbenic/Corbin/Carbonek
        6. Oileán/Oléron/Orelan/Ovelon
        7. (Tír na nÓg)/(Tír na hÓige)/(Tír Tairngire)/(Tír fo Thuinn)/(Mag Mell)/Ildathach
        8. Heaven
        9. Nirvana
        10. Fairyland
        11. Annw(y)n/Annwfn/(Ynys Afallach)/(Isle of Afallach)/(Caer Wydyr)/Ineswitrin/(Ynys Witrin)/(Ynys Gutrin)/(the Fort of Glass)/(Isle of Glass)
          1. The nine maidens of Annwyn
          2. Who kept a magic cauldron
        12. Finchory/Finca(y)ra/Fianchuivé
        13. Hyperborea
        14. El Dorado
        15. Zion
        16. Eden
          1. Earthly Paradise
            • Mediterranean
            • Mount Amara
            • Equator/(The Torrid Zone)
            • Orient
            • “Beyond the Land of Prester John”
          2. Heavenly Paradise
        17. Sannikov Land
        18. Uttarakuru
        19. Lukomorye
        20. Iona
        21. Scilly Isles
        22. Ile de Sein/Sena
          1. Group of nine virgin priestesses actually living there — The Gallizenae
          2. Their abilities included
            • Curing the sick
            • Foretelling the future
            • Controlling the weather
            • Assuming animal disguises
        23. Garden of the Hesperides
        24. Asgard
        25. Valhalla
        26. Glaisisvellir
        27. The Antipodes
        28. The Canaries
        29. Sicily
        30. India
        31. Aghartha
        32. Brittia
        33. Doggerland
        34. Fositesland
        35. Tol Eressëa
        36. Thule
        37. Magerøya
        38. Atlantis
        39. Lemuria
        40. Mu
        41. Antillia
        42. Hy-Brasil
        43. Iram of the Pillars
        44. Mayda
        45. Saint Brendan’s (Island)/(Land of Repromission)
        46. Sandy Island
        47. Baltia
        48. Shambhala
        49. Beyu
        50. Ilé-Ifè
        51. Kitezh
        52. Sagala
        53. Shangri-La
        54. Arcadia
        55. Cockaigne
        56. Mahoroba
        57. Peach Blossom Spring
        58. Skardu
        59. Xanadu/Shangdu
    3. Beginnings
      1. Rulers of “Avalon”
        1. Introduction to the Rulers of “Avalon”
        2. Manannán/Manawydan mac/(m)ap/fab Allód/Le(a)r/Lir/Llŷr, son of Cassivellaunus/Cassivellaunos/Cas(s)wal(l)a(w)n/Caswal(l)on, son of Beli Mawr
          1. Irish/Welsh Sea-God
          2. Ruling over an Elysian Otherworld isle
        3. King Afallach/Avalloc/Avallach/Aballac/Abalech/Amalech/Amalach/Auallach/Evalac(h)/Evelake
          1. Originally a God
          2. Son of (one of the following)
            • Beli
              • Beli Mawr/Beli(m)/Bel(in)(us) (Sun God, the “Fair Shining One” or “The Shining God”), son of Manogan/Monnogan and Anna
              • Beli(m)/Heli ap Brân/Bron/Bendigeidfran/(Brân Fendigaidd)/(Blessed Crow) (and Anna/Enygeus) ap Allód/Le(a)r/Lir/Llŷr
            • L(l)ud(d)/(Nudd Llaw Ereint)/(Nuada Airgetlám)/Nudens/Nodens/Nodons (God of Healing, the Sea, Hunting, & Dogs), son of Beli Mawr
            • Amalech/Amalach/Aballac [which may be a duplication of Afallach/etc]
          3. Lived there with his daughters (was the father of Modron and/or Gwallwen)
          4. Father of Owain and/or Euddolen
        4. Queen Morgen/Morganis/(Morgan le Fay)/Dioneta
          1. Derivative from the RomanoGallic Matres/Matrae (which have relation to the Muses and the Fates)
          2. Through a “Celtic” Goddess (Mātronā/Modron)
          3. Skilled in the Seven Arts
          4. A kindly enchantress heading a sisterhood of nine healers
            • Morgen
            • Moronoe
            • Mazoe
            • Gliten
            • Glitonea
            • Gliton
            • Tyronoe
            • Thiten
            • Cithara known Thiten
        5. Guingamuer/Guingomar/Guinguemar — Morgan’s Lover
        6. Fairy Queen Argante
        7. Queen Enfeidas (A Goddess) — Sister of Uther, as Arthur’s aunt
        8. Sorceress Escorducarla, the Lady of Vallone — Dama del Isola di Vallone (on “Avalon” located in the Soriano Sea)
        9. King Bangon
        10. King Oberon
        11. King Ogier the Dane
      2. Attributes and Description
        1. An island or valley(s)
        2. Associated from an early date with mystical practices and people
          1. An abode of departed spirits (spirit world)
          2. Otherworld — Isle of (Blessed) Souls
          3. Earthly Paradise
          4. Home of fairies
        3. The island lies in the centre of a great lake
          1. Still waters gleam like blue steel
          2. Surrounded by dark forests
        4. A hero slain/severely injured in battle must find his painful way
          1. Through these forests until he reaches the shores of the lake
          2. Where a boat, draped in black cloth, awaits him (with a mysterious woman sitting silently at the helm)
        5. The boat glides across to the island
          1. Without causing a ripple on the still waters
          2. As it approaches Avalon the hero’s gaping wounds become whole again
        6. With all his manly vigour restored to him, he steps onto the beautiful island
          1. Where the sun always shines
          2. Rough weather is unknown
        7. Orchards of apple trees laden with glowing fruit rise up from the water’s edge
          1. Produces crops without cultivation
          2. Self-sowing grain
          3. Vines that flourish without tending
        8. The grass is like a soft green lawn beneath his feet
        9. Toward the centre of the island
          1. There are green silent forests with flowery glades
          2. Filled with such peace as men will never know on earth
        10. The hero wanders contentedly through the forest
        11. He slowly becomes aware of the other inhabitants of the island
          1. Who live for a century or more
          2. They are heroes, like himself, who have perished in the defence of the right, against the powers of darkness
          3. Together with a race of beautiful women, who are keepers of magic that inspires charity, courage, kindliness, and pure-hearted love
        12. (Christianised elaboration)
          1. In the depths of the forest there is a small church built by Joseph of Arimathea
          2. There the hero finds the supreme joy of worshipping the Creator
    4. Events in Avalon
      1. Arthur’s sword, “Excalibur”, was forged there
      2. Guinevere and Loholt died before Arthur, and were buried in Avalon
      3. Arthur was carried there after his last battle, Camlann
        1. In a boat/barge
          1. Piloted by Barinthus — An authority on seafaring, who also figures in the Irish tale of ‘St Brendan’s Voyage’
          2. In the company of four ladies including Morgan le Fay
        2. So that his wounds might be attended to
      4. In a palace/manor surrounded by pools and fruit-trees
        1. Morgan, a powerful sorceress, placed Arthur on a bed made of gold
        2. Examined his major wound
        3. Undertook to heal him if he would stay in Avalon for a long time under her care
        4. His youth is annually restored by visits of the Holy Grail
        5. Both enjoy immortality and perpetual youth
      5. Fate of Arthur
        1. Arthur would return to rule again (waking from a mystical/magical sleep)
        2. Or the great king died like any other man, and was buried
          1. In one story, a surgeon arrives from Salerno
          2. He fails to cure Arthur, who then dies
    5. Related Literature
      1. Pomponius Mela’s De situ orbis libri III (Description of the World, Three Books), or De chorographia libri III (Of Cosmography, Three Books)
      2. Isidore of Seville’s Etymologiae (Etymologies), XIV.6.8 “Fortunatae Insulae” (“Fortunate Island”)
      3. St Angus the Culdee’s Navigatio sancti Brendani abbatis (Voyage of St Brendan the Abbot)
      4. Preiddeu Annwfn (Spoils of Annwn)
      5. William of Malmesbury’s De antiquitae Glatoniensis ecclesie (On Antiquity of Glastonbury Church)
      6. Geoffrey of Monmouth’s Prophetiae/Libellus Merlini (Prophecy/Petition of Merlin)
      7. Geoffrey of Monmouth’s Historia Regum Britanniae (History of Kings of Britain)
      8. Geoffrey of Monmouth’s Vita Merlini (Life of Merlin)
      9. Robert Wace’s Roman de Brut (Romance of Brutus or A History of the British)
      10. Etienne de Rouen’s (Stephen of Rouen’s) Draco Normannicus (Norman Dragon)
      11. Chrétien de Troyes’ Érec et Énide (Eric and Enide)
      12. Robert de Boron’s Joseph d’Artimathe
      13. Giraldus Cambrensis’ (Gerald of Wales’) (Liber) de Principis Instructione (On Instruction of Princes or Book of Early Instruction)
      14. Perlesvaus or Li Hauz Livres du Graal (The High History of the Holy Grail)
      15. Layamon’s Brut (Brutus, or The Chronicle of Britain)
      16. (Li Romans de) Durmart le Gal(l)ois or Roman de Durmart
      17. Heinrich von dem Türlin’s Diu Crône (The Crown)
      18. Murder of Prince Arthur in The Chronicle of Margam Abbey
      19. Jehan’s Les Merveilles de Rigomer
      20. Floriant et Florete
      21. La Tavola Ritonda (The Round Table)
      22. Jean des Preis’/d’Outremeuse’s Ly Myreur des Histors (The Mirror of Histories)
      23. Guillem Torroella’s La Faula
      24. Bertrand du Guesclin’s Roman d’Ogier le Danois (Romance of Ogier the Dane)
      25. Alliterative Morte Arthure (Death of Arthur)
      26. Sir Thomas Malory’s Le Morte d’Arthur (The Death of Arthur)
    6. Appendices: Geography, Genealogy, and Timeline
      1. Geography of Avalon
      2. Genealogy of Avalon
      3. Timeline of Avalon

“There is more of Rome*, than of Romance, about Arthuriana”Glyn Hnutu-healh
 
*and Achaea, Akkad, Alans, Anglia, Arameans, Armorica, Assyria, Babylon, Briton, Cambria, Canaan, Cornwall, Crete, Cumbria, Dalriada, Domnonia, Egypt,
Etruscans, ExtraTerrestrials, France, Frisia, Gaul, Greece, Hindavi, Hittites, Huns, Hurrians, Idubor, Ireland, Judaea, Jutland, Lydia, Macedonia,
Mesopotamia, Mycenaea, Narts, Norse, Persia, Phoenicia, Phrygia, Picts, Saxony, Scotland, Semites, Sumer, Ugarit, and Wales — to name a few

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